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MeSH Review

World Health

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Disease relevance of World Health


Psychiatry related information on World Health


High impact information on World Health

  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidence of diabetes, defined according to the diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO-1985 and WHO-1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA-1997), during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, compared among participants with IFG, IGT, and normal glucose levels at baseline [11].
  • We have done a controlled intervention trial among 13,404 children under five in Jumla, Nepal, which relied exclusively on indigenous community health workers to detect and treat pneumonia according to the World Health Organisation decision strategy, with a five-day home-treatment course of oral co-trimoxazole [12].
  • Unsuitability of World Health Organisation guidelines for fluoride concentrations in drinking water in Senegal [13].
  • The World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess nicotine dependence [14].
  • Report of the Joint International Society and Federation of Cardiology/World Health Organization Task Force on Nuclear Cardiology [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of World Health

  • Significantly less World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 and 4 stomatitis (2% v 16%, P < .001) and a reduced incidence of leukopenia (6% v 13%) and diarrhea (10% v 19%) occurred in the raltitrexed group (particularly at cycle 1 ) [16].
  • Subjects were approximately 50% women, aged 30-79 years, without diabetes, and classified with the metabolic syndrome according to criteria for obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) or the World Health Organization (WHO) [17].
  • OBJECTIVE: Nearly two decades ago, the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus published diagnostic criteria for diabetes [18].
  • Men with the metabolic syndrome at baseline as defined by the World Health Organization (n = 114, 20%) had a 2.6-fold increased risk of developing hypogonadism as defined by total testosterone levels less than 11 nmol/liter at the 11-yr follow-up independent of age, smoking, and other potential confounders [19].
  • Fifty-five patients with primary hypertension, World Health Organization (WHO) stages I and II, were randomly allocated to a 9-mo multicenter, controlled, double-blind, crossover study with timolol, a nonselective beta adrenoceptor blocker, and hydrochlorothiazide combined with the potassium-sparing drug amiloride (AHCT) [20].

Biological context of World Health

  • A higher than the median S-VEGF level was associated with a poor World Health Organization performance status, a high International Prognostic Index, a high serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and a large cell histology [21].
  • Development and validation of the European League Against Rheumatism response criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Comparison with the preliminary American College of Rheumatology and the World Health Organization/International League Against Rheumatism Criteria [22].
  • Both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (as defined by the 1985 World Health Organization criteria) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (as defined by the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria) represent intermediate metabolic states between normal and diabetic glucose homeostasis [23].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on available data, the model supports current World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control recommendations on HIV infection and breast-feeding [24].
  • We performed an integrated assessment of glucocorticoid secretion, metabolism, and action in 25 unmedicated lean male patients with hyperglycemia (20 with type 2 diabetes and 5 with impaired glucose intolerance by World Health Organization criteria) and 25 healthy men, carefully matched for body mass index, age, and blood pressure [25].

Anatomical context of World Health


Associations of World Health with chemical compounds

  • DATA EXTRACTION: To define normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes, modified World Health Organization criteria were used [31].
  • Experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, among others, provided lists of all known studies [32].
  • Ann Arbor stage III/IV, World Health Organization performance status 2-4, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase negatively influenced overall survival from diagnosis [33].
  • In these heavily pretreated patients, 16% had a more than 50% decrease in creatinine clearance and a 22% World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 ototoxicity [34].
  • The malaria parasite's development of resistance to the drug chloroquine is a major threat to world health [35].

Gene context of World Health

  • Significant univariate predictors (P < .05) of cancer recurrence were age older than 60 years, male sex, wedge resection, World Health Organization (WHO) adenocarcinoma subtype solid tumor with mucin, lymphatic invasion, and p53 expression [36].
  • A survival advantage was observed in patients with 0% to 20% dysadherin-positive cells compared with patients with 51% to 100% dysadherin-positive cells, independent of tumor-node-metastasis classification, and World Health Organization tumor grade (P =.019) [37].
  • HLA-DRB1 alleles were typed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer amplification and were classified according to the 1996 World Health Organization nomenclature [38].
  • The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was similar using World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Program definitions (26.7% and 27.0%) but associations between the metabolic syndrome and increased haemostatic markers, particularly for raised factor VIII and VWF were stronger using WHO criteria [39].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare renal safety signals between the COX-2-specific inhibitors rofecoxib and celecoxib, based on spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the World Health Organization/Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO/UMC) safety database through the end of the second quarter 2000 [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of World Health


  1. The effect of parity on the later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. Kritz-Silverstein, D., Barrett-Connor, E., Wingard, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. Campbell, H., Byass, P., Forgie, I.M., O'Neill, K.P., Lloyd-Evans, N., Greenwood, B.M. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of the platelet Pl(A) polymorphism of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and the fibrinogen Bbeta 448 polymorphism with myocardial infarction and extent of coronary artery disease. Carter, A.M., Ossei-Gerning, N., Wilson, I.J., Grant, P.J. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the Definition and Classification of cardiomyopathies. Richardson, P., McKenna, W., Bristow, M., Maisch, B., Mautner, B., O'Connell, J., Olsen, E., Thiene, G., Goodwin, J., Gyarfas, I., Martin, I., Nordet, P. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. A randomized trial of alternating chemotherapy versus best supportive care in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Cellerino, R., Tummarello, D., Guidi, F., Isidori, P., Raspugli, M., Biscottini, B., Fatati, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Quality of life of people with rheumatoid arthritis as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, short form (WHOQOL-BREF): score distributions and psychometric properties. Taylor, W.J., Myers, J., Simpson, R.T., McPherson, K.M., Weatherall, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationship between depressive symptoms and diabetes among native Hawaiians. Grandinetti, A., Kaholokula, J.K., Crabbe, K.M., Kenui, C.K., Chen, R., Chang, H.K. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The World Health Organization's Expert Committee on drug dependence: comments on the 28th report (1994). Negrete, J.C. Addiction (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in late life. Kaplan, M.S., Newsom, J.T., McFarland, B.H., Lu, L. American journal of preventive medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A repetition-prediction study of European parasuicide populations: a summary of the first report from part II of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide in co-operation with the EC concerted action on attempted suicide. Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A., De Leo, D., Schmidtke, A., Crepet, P., Lonnqvist, J., Michel, K., Salander-Renberg, E., Stiles, T.C., Wasserman, D., Aagaard, B., Egebo, H., Jensen, B. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population: The Hoorn Study. de Vegt, F., Dekker, J.M., Jager, A., Hienkens, E., Kostense, P.J., Stehouwer, C.D., Nijpels, G., Bouter, L.M., Heine, R.J. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction in total under-five mortality in western Nepal through community-based antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia. Pandey, M.R., Daulaire, N.M., Starbuck, E.S., Houston, R.M., McPherson, K. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Unsuitability of World Health Organisation guidelines for fluoride concentrations in drinking water in Senegal. Brouwer, I.D., Dirks, O.B., De Bruin, A., Hautvast, J.G. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Nicotine dependence in the United States: prevalence, trends, and smoking persistence. Breslau, N., Johnson, E.O., Hiripi, E., Kessler, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Report of the Joint International Society and Federation of Cardiology/World Health Organization Task Force on Nuclear Cardiology. Zaret, B.L., Battler, A., Berger, H.J., Bodenheimer, M.M., Borer, J.S., Brochier, M., Hugenholtz, P.G., Neufeld, H.N., Pfisterer, M.E. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Open, randomized, multicenter trial of raltitrexed versus fluorouracil plus high-dose leucovorin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Tomudex Colorectal Cancer Study Group. Cocconi, G., Cunningham, D., Van Cutsem, E., Francois, E., Gustavsson, B., van Hazel, G., Kerr, D., Possinger, K., Hietschold, S.M. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in the San Antonio Heart and Framingham Offspring Studies. Meigs, J.B., Wilson, P.W., Nathan, D.M., D'Agostino, R.B., Williams, K., Haffner, S.M. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of fasting and 2-hour glucose and HbA1c levels for diagnosing diabetes. Diagnostic criteria and performance revisited. Engelgau, M.M., Thompson, T.J., Herman, W.H., Boyle, J.P., Aubert, R.E., Kenny, S.J., Badran, A., Sous, E.S., Ali, M.A. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The metabolic syndrome and smoking in relation to hypogonadism in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study. Laaksonen, D.E., Niskanen, L., Punnonen, K., Nyyssönen, K., Tuomainen, T.P., Valkonen, V.P., Salonen, J.T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Timolol and hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride in primary hypertension. Henning, R., Karlberg, B.E., Odar-Cederlöf, I., Andersson, P.O., Lins, L.E., Nilsson, O.R., Tolagen, K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. A high pretreatment serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration is associated with poor outcome in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Salven, P., Teerenhovi, L., Joensuu, H. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Development and validation of the European League Against Rheumatism response criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Comparison with the preliminary American College of Rheumatology and the World Health Organization/International League Against Rheumatism Criteria. van Gestel, A.M., Prevoo, M.L., van 't Hof, M.A., van Rijswijk, M.H., van de Putte, L.B., van Riel, P.L. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Differences in insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance or isolated impaired fasting glucose. Festa, A., D'Agostino, R., Hanley, A.J., Karter, A.J., Saad, M.F., Haffner, S.M. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. HIV infection and breast-feeding: policy implications through a decision analysis model. Hu, D.J., Heyward, W.L., Byers, R.H., Nkowane, B.M., Oxtoby, M.J., Holck, S.E., Heymann, D.L. AIDS (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Abnormal cortisol metabolism and tissue sensitivity to cortisol in patients with glucose intolerance. Andrews, R.C., Herlihy, O., Livingstone, D.E., Andrew, R., Walker, B.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Towards a World Health Organization (WHO) approved standard sample for islet cell antibodies, GAD65 and IA-2 autoantibodies. Lernmark, A., Kolb, H., Mire-Sluis, T. Diabetologia (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Plasma glucose within the normal range is not associated with carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results in subjects with normal glucose tolerance from the Bruneck Study. Bonora, E., Kiechl, S., Willeit, J., Oberhollenzer, F., Egger, G., Bonadonna, R., Muggeo, M. Diabetes Care (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Sensitivity and specificity of classification systems for fatness in adolescents. Neovius, M.G., Linné, Y.M., Barkeling, B.S., Rossner, S.O. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with neurobehavioral test scores in South Korean lead workers. Schwartz, B.S., Lee, B.K., Lee, G.S., Stewart, W.F., Lee, S.S., Hwang, K.Y., Ahn, K.D., Kim, Y.B., Bolla, K.I., Simon, D., Parsons, P.J., Todd, A.C. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Diagnostic significance of detecting dysgranulopoiesis in chronic myeloid leukemia. Xu, Y., Dolan, M.M., Nguyen, P.L. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. A clinical approach for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: an analysis using glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Meta-analysis Research Group on the Diagnosis of Diabetes Using Glycated Hemoglobin Levels. Peters, A.L., Davidson, M.B., Schriger, D.L., Hasselblad, V. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature. Colditz, G.A., Brewer, T.F., Berkey, C.S., Wilson, M.E., Burdick, E., Fineberg, H.V., Mosteller, F. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Mitoxantrone is superior to doxorubicin in a multiagent weekly regimen for patients older than 60 with high-grade lymphoma: results of a BNLI randomized trial of PAdriaCEBO versus PMitCEBO. Mainwaring, P.N., Cunningham, D., Gregory, W., Hoskin, P., Hancock, B., Norton, A.J., MacLennan, K., Smith, P., Hudson, G.V., Linch, D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Etoposide and carboplatin in neuroblastoma: a French Society of Pediatric Oncology phase II study. Frappaz, D., Michon, J., Hartmann, O., Bouffet, E., Lejars, O., Rubie, H., Gentet, J.C., Chastagner, P., Sariban, E., Brugiere, L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Malaria: dissecting chloroquine resistance. Ridley, R.G. Curr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular pathologic substaging in 244 stage I non-small-cell lung cancer patients: clinical implications. Kwiatkowski, D.J., Harpole, D.H., Godleski, J., Herndon, J.E., Shieh, D.B., Richards, W., Blanco, R., Xu, H.J., Strauss, G.M., Sugarbaker, D.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Dysadherin overexpression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma reflects tumor aggressiveness: relationship to e-cadherin expression. Shimamura, T., Sakamoto, M., Ino, Y., Sato, Y., Shimada, K., Kosuge, T., Sekihara, H., Hirohashi, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to rheumatoid arthritis, articular deformities, and disability in Mexican Americans. del Rincón, I., Escalante, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. The metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: relationship to haemostatic and inflammatory markers in older non-diabetic men. Wannamethee, S.G., Lowe, G.D., Shaper, A.G., Rumley, A., Lennon, L., Whincup, P.H. Atherosclerosis (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. A comparison of renal-related adverse drug reactions between rofecoxib and celecoxib, based on the World Health Organization/Uppsala Monitoring Centre safety database. Zhao, S.Z., Reynolds, M.W., Lejkowith, J., Whelton, A., Arellano, F.M. Clinical therapeutics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Report of the Joint ISFC/WHO Task Force on Coronary Angioplasty. The International Society and Federation of Cardiology and the World Health Organization. Bourassa, M.G., Alderman, E.L., Bertrand, M., de la Fuente, L., Gratsianski, A., Kaltenbach, M., King, S.B., Nobuyoshi, M., Romaniuk, P., Ryan, T.J. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  42. Population-based incidence rates and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in white individuals: the Bruneck study. Bonora, E., Kiechl, S., Willeit, J., Oberhollenzer, F., Egger, G., Meigs, J.B., Bonadonna, R.C., Muggeo, M. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Oral rehydration therapy. Farthing, M.J. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles in the elderly. The Honolulu Heart Program. Rodriguez, B.L., Curb, J.D., Burchfiel, C.M., Huang, B., Sharp, D.S., Lu, G.Y., Fujimoto, W., Yano, K. Diabetes Care (1996) [Pubmed]
  45. Local reactions during allergen immunotherapy do not require dose adjustment. Tankersley, M.S., Butler, K.K., Butler, W.K., Goetz, D.W. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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