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Chemical Compound Review

iodine     molecular iodine

Synonyms: Diiodine, Vistarin, diiodane, Actomar, Eranol, ...
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Disease relevance of iodine

  • CONCLUSION: Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis following contrast radiography was found in 7 of 28 cases of hyperthyroidism seen at a geriatric hospital [1].
  • PURPOSE: A multicenter, randomized study was undertaken to estimate the single agent activity of Tositumomab and to determine the contribution of radioisotope-labeling with (131)I to activity and toxicity by comparing treatment outcomes for Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab (BEXXAR) to an equivalent total dose of unlabeled Tositumomab [2].
  • Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Goitrous Hashimoto's Thyroiditis [3].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-eight patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to either unlabeled Tositumomab or Iodine I 131 Tositumomab [2].
  • A patient with thyroid cancer is described whose metastases were detected only after the administration of a large therapeutic dose of 131 Iodine [4].

Psychiatry related information on iodine

  • OBJECTIVE: Iodine deficiency is well known as the cause of several disorders such as endemic goitre and cretinism, along with a wide spectrum of psychoneurological development disorders including endemic mental deficiency and endemic cognitive deficiency, which are generally correlated to damage to the fetus [5].

High impact information on iodine

  • Iodine deficiency in Italy. Italian Study Group on Urinary Iodine of SIEDP [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Iodine tincture is superior to povidone-iodine for venipuncture site antisepsis before blood culture sampling [7].
  • Recurrent thyroid cancer. Role of surgery versus radioactive iodine (I131) [8].
  • However, after correcting the World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders reference data, the prevalence increased to 24.6% for boys and 20.7% for girls [9].
  • At the time of the study, all patients were free of cancer (negative 131 Iodine whole body scan and serum thyroglobulin levels less than 0.3 micrograms/L) and all were receiving doses of T4 sufficiently high to prevent a rise in a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration after an iv bolus of TRH [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of iodine

  • World Health Organization and International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders criteria were used for the determination of goiter [11].
  • Goiter endemics were reported to develop when the critical urinary iodine/ SCN- ratio decreases below 3 microg iodine per mg SCN-. Iodine supplementation completely reverses the goitrogenic influence of SCN-. SCN- is also generated from cigarette smoking as a detoxifying product of cyanide [12].
  • After a refeeding (group C) period of ten days, total recovery occurred in plasma thyroid hormone levels (FT4 and FT3) and in thyroid iodine contents of pups in spite of a partial recovery of body weights and plasma TSH levels [13].
  • Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia [14].
  • The use of radioactive Iodine, Ruthenium, Iridium and Cobalt plaques of varying dimensions to treat choroidal and ciliochoroidal melanomas is discussed and placed in perspective with other treatment modalities [15].

Biological context of iodine


Anatomical context of iodine


Associations of iodine with other chemical compounds

  • Thyroid Oxidases (ThOX/DUOX) genes encode proteins that are thought to play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone by providing the oxidizing agent required to allow the organification of iodine [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Iodine-containing polyvinyl alcohol is a ready-to-use liquid embolic agent clearly visible under fluoroscopy; additives are not required [27].
  • Inspired by the effect of norrisolide on the Golgi complex, we synthesized norrisolide probes that contain: the perhydroindane core of the parent natural product for Golgi localization, a crosslinking unit (aryl azide or epoxide) for covalent binding to the target, and a tag (biotin or iodine) for subsequent target purification [28].
  • On the analysis of iodine-129 and iodine-127 in environmental materials by accelerator mass spectrometry and ion chromatography [29].
  • This study demonstrates that Tc 99m MAG3 renography is certainly equal to Tc 99m DTPA renography or Iodine 131 renography in assessing early transplant function [30].
  • Perchlorate exposure was not significantly correlated with breast milk iodine concentrations [31].
  • If the urine iodine to creatinine ratio is used instead, an extensive redistribution of study subjects occurs that results in an apparent positive relationship between this ratio and TSH measurements [32].
  • Iodine prophylaxis is effective in controlling ID in areas of poor vitamin A status [33].

Gene context of iodine

  • Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the Iodine 123 labeled dopamine D2 receptor antagonist S(-)Iodobenzamide [S (-)IBZM] was performed in 15 patients with pituitary tumors [34].
  • Dose-Related Influence of Sodium Selenite on Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Follicles In Vitro Induced by Iodine, EGF, TGF-beta, and H2O2 [35].
  • We measured lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm bone mineral (BMD) in 24 women (14 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal) who had been treated with total thyroidectomy and 131 Iodine ablation therapy for nonanaplastic thyroid carcinoma and 24 case controls [10].
  • Both Ser-19, located in the N-terminal fragment of UmuD that is removed by RecA-mediated cleavage, and Ser-67 are probably not as close to the dimer interface, since they are cross-linked more easily with bis-maleimidohexane than with I2 [36].
  • Thyroid function, levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody and urinary iodine excretion were measured and thyroid ultrasound examination was also performed [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of iodine

  • BACKGROUND: Iodine 125 brachytherapy has an established role in surgically accessible recurrent tumors of brain [38].
  • The above suggests that Iodine 125 interstitial implantation is well suited to only a minority of early stage prostate cancer patients and that most patients with Stage B and C prostatic carcinoma should be treated with either external beam irradiation or with radical prostatectomy [39].
  • BACKGROUND: Iodine 123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has been used in patients with clinical suspicion of pheochromocytoma to confirm the nature of an adrenal or extraadrenal mass or to identify occult disease [40].
  • Between 1975 and 1985 132 patients underwent bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and insertion of Iodine 125 seeds for biopsy-proved localized carcinoma of the prostate [41].
  • INTRODUCTION: Iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) has been applied to the palliative treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma in small studies [42].


  1. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism due to nonionic contrast radiography in the elderly. Martin, F.I., Tress, B.W., Colman, P.G., Deam, D.R. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The radioisotope contributes significantly to the activity of radioimmunotherapy. Davis, T.A., Kaminski, M.S., Leonard, J.P., Hsu, F.J., Wilkinson, M., Zelenetz, A., Wahl, R.L., Kroll, S., Coleman, M., Goris, M., Levy, R., Knox, S.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Goitrous Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Tajiri, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma after the administration of a therapeutic dose of 131-iodine. Preisman, R.A., Halpern, S. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders. Vermiglio, F., Lo Presti, V.P., Scaffidi Argentina, G., Finocchiaro, M.D., Gullo, D., Squatrito, S., Trimarchi, F. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Iodine deficiency in Italy. Italian Study Group on Urinary Iodine of SIEDP. Rapa, A., Marinello, D., Chiorboli, E., Sacco, F., Bona, G. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A randomized trial of povidone-iodine compared with iodine tincture for venipuncture site disinfection: effects on rates of blood culture contamination. Little, J.R., Murray, P.R., Traynor, P.S., Spitznagel, E. Am. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Recurrent thyroid cancer. Role of surgery versus radioactive iodine (I131). Coburn, M., Teates, D., Wanebo, H.J. Ann. Surg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Recurrent iodine deficiency in Tasmania, Australia: a salutary lesson in sustainable iodine prophylaxis and its monitoring. Guttikonda, K., Burgess, J.R., Hynes, K., Boyages, S., Byth, K., Parameswaran, V. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A therapeutic dilemma: suppressive doses of thyroxine significantly reduce bone mineral measurements in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women with thyroid carcinoma. Diamond, T., Nery, L., Hales, I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power station accident on the Turkish population. Emral, R., Baştemir, M., Güllü, S., Erdoğan, G. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Thiocyanate overload and thyroid disease. Erdogan, M.F. Biofactors (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Food restriction induced thyroid changes and their reversal after refeeding in female rats and their pups. Fetoui, H., Bouaziz, H., Mahjoubi-Samet, A., Soussia, L., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. Acta. Biol. Hung. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia. Khor, G.L. Food and nutrition bulletin. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Episcleral plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. Giblin, M.E., Shields, J.A., Augsburger, J.J., Brady, L.W. Australian and New Zealand journal of ophthalmology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Control of the regioselectivity of sulfonamidyl radical cyclization by vinylic halogen substitution. Lu, H., Chen, Q., Li, C. J. Org. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Silent iodine prophylaxis in Western Europe only partly corrects iodine deficiency; the case of Belgium. Delange, F., Van Onderbergen, A., Shabana, W., Vandemeulebroucke, E., Vertongen, F., Gnat, D., Dramaix, M. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. I-123 MIBG imaging and heart rate variability analysis to predict the need for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Arora, R., Ferrick, K.J., Nakata, T., Kaplan, R.C., Rozengarten, M., Latif, F., Ng, K., Marcano, V., Heller, S., Fisher, J.D., Travin, M.I. Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation. Whist, A.C., Østerås, O., Sølverød, L. J. Dairy Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Control of efficiency and results, and adverse effects of excess iodine administration on thyroid function. Koutras, D.A. Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Hypothyroidism reduces the rate of slow component A (SCa) axonal transport and the amount of transported tubulin in the hyt/hyt mouse optic nerve. Stein, S.A., Kirkpatrick, L.L., Shanklin, D.R., Adams, P.M., Brady, S.T. J. Neurosci. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Brain MR Spectroscopy Findings in Neonates with Hypothyroidism Born to Mothers Living in Iodine-Deficient Areas. Akinci, A., Sarac, K., G??ng??r, S., Mungan, I., Aydin, O. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies on phosphatidylcholine model membranes. I. Iodine permeability measurement by specific ion electrode. Schullery, S.E. Chem. Phys. Lipids (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Establishment and characterization of cell lines from three human thyroid carcinomas: Responses to all-trans-retinoic acid and mutations in the BRAF gene. Koh, C.S., Ku, J.L., Park, S.Y., Kim, K.H., Choi, J.S., Kim, I.J., Park, J.H., Oh, S.K., Chung, J.K., Lee, J.H., Kim, W.H., Kim, C.W., Cho, B.Y., Park, J.G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Infertility and thyroid disorders. Trokoudes, K.M., Skordis, N., Picolos, M.K. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Human Thyroid Oxidases genes promoter activity in thyrocytes does not appear to be functionally dependent on Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 or Pax8. Christophe-Hobertus, C., Christophe, D. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Intrinsically radiopaque iodine-containing polyvinyl alcohol as a liquid embolic agent: evaluation in experimental wide-necked aneurysms. Dudeck, O., Jordan, O., Hoffmann, K.T., Tesmer, K., Kreuzer-Nagy, T., Podrabsky, P., Heise, M., Meyer, R., Okuducu, A.F., Bruhn, H., Hilborn, J., Rüfenacht, D.A., Doelker, E., Felix, R. J. Neurosurg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Trifunctional norrisolide probes for the study of Golgi vesiculation. Guizzunti, G., Brady, T.P., Malhotra, V., Theodorakis, E.A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. On the analysis of iodine-129 and iodine-127 in environmental materials by accelerator mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Schmidt, A., Schnabel, C., Handl, J., Jakob, D., Michel, R., Synal, H.A., Lopez, J.M., Suter, M. Sci. Total Environ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Sequential Tc 99m mercaptoacetyl-triglycine (MAG3) renography as an evaluator of early renal transplant function. Carmody, E., Greene, A., Brennan, P., Donohue, J., Carmody, M., Keeling, F. Clinical transplantation. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Breast milk iodine and perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. Pearce, E.N., Leung, A.M., Blount, B.C., Bazrafshan, H.R., He, X., Pino, S., Valentin-Blasini, L., Braverman, L.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Urine iodine measurements, creatinine adjustment, and thyroid deficiency in an adult United States population. Haddow, J.E., McClain, M.R., Palomaki, G.E., Hollowell, J.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Vitamin A supplementation in iodine-deficient African children decreases thyrotropin stimulation of the thyroid and reduces the goiter rate. Zimmermann, M.B., Jooste, P.L., Mabapa, N.S., Schoeman, S., Biebinger, R., Mushaphi, L.F., Mbhenyane, X. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Iodine-123-IBZM-SPECT: studies in 15 patients with pituitary tumors. Pirker, W., Brücke, T., Riedl, M., Clodi, M., Luger, A., Asenbaum, S., Podreka, I., Deecke, L. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Dose-Related Influence of Sodium Selenite on Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Follicles In Vitro Induced by Iodine, EGF, TGF-beta, and H2O2. Lehmann, P., Rank, P., Hallfeldt, K.L., Krebs, B., G??rtner, R. Biological trace element research. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. A monocysteine approach for probing the structure and interactions of the UmuD protein. Lee, M.H., Ohta, T., Walker, G.C. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Chronic iodine excess does not increase the incidence of hyperthyroidism: a prospective community-based epidemiological survey in China. Yang, F., Shan, Z., Teng, X., Li, Y., Guan, H., Chong, W., Teng, D., Yu, X., Fan, C., Dai, H., Yu, Y., Yang, R., Li, J., Chen, Y., Zhao, D., Mao, J., Teng, W. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Concurrent cisplatin therapy and iodine 125 brachytherapy for recurrent malignant brain tumors. Chamberlain, M.C., Barba, D., Kormanik, P., Berson, A.M., Saunders, W.M., Shea, M.C. Arch. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. External beam irradiation versus 125 iodine implant in the definitive treatment of prostate carcinoma. Koprowski, C.D., Berkenstock, K.G., Borofski, A.M., Ziegler, J.C., Lightfoot, D.A., Brady, L.W. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Is preoperative iodine 123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy routinely necessary before initial adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma? Miskulin, J., Shulkin, B.L., Doherty, G.M., Sisson, J.C., Burney, R.E., Gauger, P.G. Surgery (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Iodine 125 seed implants for prostatic carcinoma. Five- and ten-year follow-up. Weyrich, T.P., Kandzari, S.J., Jain, P.R. Urology (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Iodine -131 metaiodobenzylguanidine is an effective treatment for malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Safford, S.D., Coleman, R.E., Gockerman, J.P., Moore, J., Feldman, J.M., Leight, G.S., Tyler, D.S., Olson, J.A. Surgery (2003) [Pubmed]
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