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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Human Development

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Disease relevance of Human Development


Psychiatry related information on Human Development


High impact information on Human Development


Chemical compound and disease context of Human Development

  • Thus, the parallel biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of human galactose metabolism are shedding light on this under-appreciated metabolic pathway that is critical for cellular energy production, modification of cellular macromolecules and normal human development [13].
  • Thus, there is a period in pre- and postnatal human development, lasting for several years, during which immature CNS neurons are prone to commit suicide if exposed to intoxicating concentrations of drugs with NMDA antagonist or GABAmimetic properties [14].
  • The early induced genes identified may play a regulatory role in RA-mediated growth suppression and terminal differentiation and may have physiologic or pharmacologic importance during normal human development and retinoid-based cancer therapy or prevention [15].
  • Sulfation of thyroid hormone and dopamine during human development: ontogeny of phenol sulfotransferases and arylsulfatase in liver, lung, and brain [16].
  • Plasma and urine free carnitine concentration during human development was evaluated [17].

Biological context of Human Development


Anatomical context of Human Development


Gene context of Human Development

  • These data show that GLI3 mutations in humans mimic functional effects of the Drosophila ci gene and correlate with the distinct effects of these mutations on human development [28].
  • DVL-1 and DVL-3 are members of a human dsh-like gene family, which is probably involved in human development [29].
  • To study the role of EGF, TGF-alpha and EGFR in early human development, two methods applicable for analysis of expression at the single embryo level have been employed [30].
  • Comparison with previous enzymology studies suggest the changing pattern of 11 beta-HSD2 mRNA is likely to be translated into enzyme activity and have significant parallels in human development [31].
  • We examined the expression of mucin genes, MUC3, 4, 5AC, 5B, 6, 7, and 8 in human fetal tissues to establish the localization and age of onset of expression of each mucin gene during human development [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Human Development


  1. Expression of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH ) gene during early human development and phenotypic expression of new mutations causing holoprosencephaly. Odent, S., Atti-Bitach, T., Blayau, M., Mathieu, M., Aug, J., Delezo de, A.L., Gall, J.Y., Le Marec, B., Munnich, A., David, V., Vekemans, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Telomere length, telomerase activity, and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in growth plate of epiphyseal articular cartilage in femoral head during normal human development and in thanatophoric dysplasia. Morita, M., Nakanishi, K., Kawai, T., Fujikawa, K. Hum. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation during early human development. Oey, N.A., den Boer, M.E., Wijburg, F.A., Vekemans, M., Augé, J., Steiner, C., Wanders, R.J., Waterham, H.R., Ruiter, J.P., Attié-Bitach, T. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The Preterm Prediction Study: association between cervical interleukin 6 concentration and spontaneous preterm birth. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Goepfert, A.R., Goldenberg, R.L., Andrews, W.W., Hauth, J.C., Mercer, B., Iams, J., Meis, P., Moawad, A., Thom, E., VanDorsten, J.P., Caritis, S.N., Thurnau, G., Miodovnik, M., Dombrowski, M., Roberts, J., McNellis, D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Predictors of pre-eclampsia in women at high risk. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Caritis, S., Sibai, B., Hauth, J., Lindheimer, M., VanDorsten, P., Klebanoff, M., Thom, E., Landon, M., Paul, R., Miodovnik, M., Meis, P., Thurnau, G., Dombrowski, M., McNellis, D., Roberts, J. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. HLA-G expression during preimplantation human embryo development. Jurisicova, A., Casper, R.F., MacLusky, N.J., Mills, G.B., Librach, C.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Predictors of intrapartum fetal distress: the role of electronic fetal monitoring. Report of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Consensus Development Task Force. Zuspan, F.P., Quilligan, E.J., Iams, J.D., van Geijn, H.P. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Vitamin A supplementation for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Tyson, J.E., Wright, L.L., Oh, W., Kennedy, K.A., Mele, L., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Stoll, B.J., Lemons, J.A., Stevenson, D.K., Bauer, C.R., Korones, S.B., Fanaroff, A.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutation of the PAX2 gene in a family with optic nerve colobomas, renal anomalies and vesicoureteral reflux. Sanyanusin, P., Schimmenti, L.A., McNoe, L.A., Ward, T.A., Pierpont, M.E., Sullivan, M.J., Dobyns, W.B., Eccles, M.R. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Synergistic regulation of human beta-globin gene switching by locus control region elements HS3 and HS4. Bungert, J., Davé, U., Lim, K.C., Lieuw, K.H., Shavit, J.A., Liu, Q., Engel, J.D. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Mercer, B.M., Miodovnik, M., Thurnau, G.R., Goldenberg, R.L., Das, A.F., Ramsey, R.D., Rabello, Y.A., Meis, P.J., Moawad, A.H., Iams, J.D., Van Dorsten, J.P., Paul, R.H., Bottoms, S.F., Merenstein, G., Thom, E.A., Roberts, J.M., McNellis, D. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. In humans, early cortisol biosynthesis provides a mechanism to safeguard female sexual development. Goto, M., Piper Hanley, K., Marcos, J., Wood, P.J., Wright, S., Postle, A.D., Cameron, I.T., Mason, J.I., Wilson, D.I., Hanley, N.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The fundamental importance of human galactose metabolism: lessons from genetics and biochemistry. Petry, K.G., Reichardt, J.K. Trends Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Drug-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Olney, J.W., Wozniak, D.F., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Farber, N.B., Bittigau, P., Ikonomidou, C. Brain Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Developmentally-related candidate retinoic acid target genes regulated early during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma. Freemantle, S.J., Kerley, J.S., Olsen, S.L., Gross, R.H., Spinella, M.J. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Sulfation of thyroid hormone and dopamine during human development: ontogeny of phenol sulfotransferases and arylsulfatase in liver, lung, and brain. Richard, K., Hume, R., Kaptein, E., Stanley, E.L., Visser, T.J., Coughtrie, M.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Plasma and urine carnitine levels during development. Battistella, P.A., Vergani, L., Donzelli, F., Rubaltelli, F.F., Angelini, C. Pediatr. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Epidermal growth factor signaling via Ras controls the Smad transcriptional co-repressor TGIF. Lo, R.S., Wotton, D., Massagué, J. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Temporal regulation of CFTR expression during ovine lung development: implications for CF gene therapy. Broackes-Carter, F.C., Mouchel, N., Gill, D., Hyde, S., Bassett, J., Harris, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Telomerase activity in human development is regulated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) transcription and by alternate splicing of hTERT transcripts. Ulaner, G.A., Hu, J.F., Vu, T.H., Giudice, L.C., Hoffman, A.R. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Multiple mechanisms participate in the generation of diversity of human H chain CDR3 regions. Sanz, I. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Tissue factor expression during human and mouse development. Luther, T., Flössel, C., Mackman, N., Bierhaus, A., Kasper, M., Albrecht, S., Sage, E.H., Iruela-Arispe, L., Grossmann, H., Ströhlein, A., Zhang, Y., Nawroth, P.P., Carmeliet, P., Loskutoff, D.J., Müller, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. A 3' enhancer contributes to the stage-specific expression of the human beta-globin gene. Trudel, M., Costantini, F. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Immune cell trafficking in uterus and early life is dominated by the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1 in humans. Salmi, M., Alanen, K., Grenman, S., Briskin, M., Butcher, E.C., Jalkanen, S. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel subpopulation of primed T cells in the human fetus. Byrne, J.A., Stankovic, A.K., Cooper, M.D. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. VITO-1, a novel vestigial related protein is predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle lineage. Mielcarek, M., Günther, S., Krüger, M., Braun, T. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression and subcellular localization of dystrophin in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles during the human development. Chevron, M.P., Girard, F., Claustres, M., Demaille, J. Neuromuscul. Disord. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. GLI3 mutations in human disorders mimic Drosophila cubitus interruptus protein functions and localization. Shin, S.H., Kogerman, P., Lindström, E., Toftgárd, R., Biesecker, L.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. cDNA characterization and chromosomal mapping of two human homologues of the Drosophila dishevelled polarity gene. Pizzuti, A., Amati, F., Calabrese, G., Mari, A., Colosimo, A., Silani, V., Giardino, L., Ratti, A., Penso, D., Calzà, L., Palka, G., Scarlato, G., Novelli, G., Dallapiccola, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. EGF, TGF-alpha and EGFR expression in human preimplantation embryos. Chia, C.M., Winston, R.M., Handyside, A.H. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The ontogeny of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression reveal intricate control of glucocorticoid action in development. Brown, R.W., Diaz, R., Robson, A.C., Kotelevtsev, Y.V., Mullins, J.J., Kaufman, M.H., Seckl, J.R. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Developmental expression of mucin genes in the human respiratory tract. Reid, C.J., Gould, S., Harris, A. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Cloning and characterization of human and mouse SNRK sucrose non-fermenting protein (SNF-1)-related kinases. Kertesz, N., Samson, J., Debacker, C., Wu, H., Labastie, M.C. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Safety of labor epidural anesthesia for women with severe hypertensive disease. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Hogg, B., Hauth, J.C., Caritis, S.N., Sibai, B.M., Lindheimer, M., Van Dorsten, J.P., Klebanoff, M., MacPherson, C., Landon, M., Paul, R., Miodovnik, M., Meis, P.J., Thurnau, G.R., Dombrowski, M.P., McNellis, D., Roberts, J.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Glial-like cells in sympathetic neural crest derivatives during human embryogenesis. Detection by S-100 immunohistochemistry. Lauriola, L., Sentinelli, S., Maggiano, N., Michetti, F., Cocchia, D. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. Optimization of in situ hybridization histochemistry for localization of GAP-43 mRNA in fetal brain during human development. Kanazir, S., Vukosavic, S., Rakic, L., Ruzdijic, S. Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Risk factors for SIDS. Results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development SIDS Cooperative Epidemiological Study. Hoffman, H.J., Damus, K., Hillman, L., Krongrad, E. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
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