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Chemical Compound Review

T-kinin     (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-1- [(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2...

Synonyms: Ile-Ser-BK, AR-1J3205, AC1L3X14, C16008, Ile-ser-bradykinin, ...
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Disease relevance of Ile-ser-bradykinin

  • Degradation of Ile-Ser-Bradykinin by enzymes in human serum and ascites [1].
  • In contrast, treatment of plasma from healthy human subjects (n = 8) and from patients (n = 8) with inflammation due to acute or chronic gastrointestinal disease under the same conditions did not generate any detectable T-kinin immunoreactivity [2].
  • The edema produced by the injection of carrageenan in rat hindpaws was associated with a sevenfold increase of immunoreactive kinins in the inflamed paw extract (from 0.021 +/- 0.007 to 0.141 +/- 0.021 pmol/g tissue; p < 0.01), the immunoreactivity corresponded to BK, kallidin, and T-kinin after HPLC separation [3].
  • T-kinin in human ovarian carcinoma ascites [4].
  • 3. T-kinin may not be involved in these inflammations, since the deficient strain owns normal plasma level of T-kininogen [5].

High impact information on Ile-ser-bradykinin

  • In the intron downstream of the exon coding for Ile-Ser-bradykinin, the two alpha 1-MAP genes contained sequence sections similar to the section in the human kininogen gene which codes for the carboxyl-terminal chain of high molecular weight kininogen [6].
  • The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that one, termed K-prekininogen, represents the counterpart of the known low molecular weight prekininogen present in other mammals, while the other two, called T-prekininogens, contain a novel T-kinin sequence which was recently identified from rat plasma [7].
  • T-kininogen, the major kininogen in rat plasma, releases Ile-Ser-bradykinin (T-kinin) when incubated with trypsin, but is not a substrate for tissue kallikrein [8].
  • Antigen gamma released a kinin which was identified as T-kinin by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The T-kininogenase activity of antigen gamma had a Km of 29 +/- 4 microM and a kcat/Km of 140 M-1.s-1, and was comparable with its high and low molecular mass-kininogenase activity (7.4 and 10 micrograms of kinin/h per mg respectively) [8].
  • While the potency of T-kinin on rat uterus contraction was similar to that of bradykinin, binding studies showed that the affinity of T-kinin to the receptor was 10-fold lower than that of bradykinin [9].

Biological context of Ile-ser-bradykinin


Anatomical context of Ile-ser-bradykinin

  • This study characterizes the receptors involved in T-kinin activity on both the intact isolated rat uterus and membrane receptor preparations of the rat uterus [9].
  • 6. We conclude that the role of T-kininogen in this kind of exudate was mainly the inhibition of thiol proteinases and not the release of T-kinin [13].
  • The pharmacology of T-kinin and des-Arg(11)-T-kinin in primary cultures of rat bladder smooth muscle cells [14].
  • Intravenous injection of T-kinin (0.1-10 mumol/kg) increased dye extravasation in a dose-dependent manner, with 134% for trachea and 117% for bronchi by 1 mumol/kg [10].
  • The distribution of T-kininogen throughout the central and peripheral nervous system of the rat, the variations of its level during the life span suggest that T-kininogen would play the role of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor and not that of a T-kinin-releasing substrate in nervous tissues [15].

Associations of Ile-ser-bradykinin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ile-ser-bradykinin

  • These results indicate for the first time that free T-kinin as well as bradykinin is released during an inflammatory response in rat and confirms our previous finding that T-kininogen may be a major acute-phase protein in inflammation [20].
  • The results show that T-kinin acts through kinin B2 receptors in the rat uterus as demonstrated by B2 receptor-antagonist inhibition [9].
  • 3. The analogues Ile-Ser-Bk (T-kinin) and Lys-Lys-Bk, which interact with both B1 and B2 Bk receptors, produced pressor effects similar to those of Bk, although of greater duration, whereas des-Arg9-Bk, a B1-receptor agonist, had no effect [21].
  • Cathepsin D alone could not release T-kinin, but T-kinin-containing peptides [22].
  • Changes in plasma extravasation were quantified by counting the number of leaky sites and calculating the clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate- (FITC) dextran (mol mass = 70 kDa) during suffusion of the cheek pouch with T-kinin (0.1-1.0 microM) by using intravital microscopy [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ile-ser-bradykinin


  1. Degradation of Ile-Ser-Bradykinin by enzymes in human serum and ascites. Rehbock, J., Wunderer, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Measurement of T-kinin in rat plasma using a specific radioimmunoassay. O'Harte, F., Smith, D.D., Lanspa, S.J., Conlon, J.M. Regul. Pept. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of digoxigenin-labeled peptide: application to chemiluminoenzyme immunoassay of bradykinin in inflamed tissues. Décarie, A., Drapeau, G., Closset, J., Couture, R., Adam, A. Peptides (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. T-kinin in human ovarian carcinoma ascites. Wunderer, G., Walter, I. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of high molecular weight (HMW)-kininogen in inflammatory exudation: evidence with the studies of the HMW-kininogen deficient rat. Oh-ishi, S., Hayashi, I., Yamaki, K., Utsunomiya, I., Hayashi, M., Yamasu, A., Nakano, T. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and expression of the genes for major acute phase alpha 1-protein (thiostatin) and kininogen in the rat. Fung, W.P., Schreiber, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Primary structures of the mRNAs encoding the rat precursors for bradykinin and T-kinin. Structural relationship of kininogens with major acute phase protein and alpha 1-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Furuto-Kato, S., Matsumoto, A., Kitamura, N., Nakanishi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. T-kininogenase activity of the rat submandibular gland is predominantly due to the kallikrein-like serine protease antigen gamma. Berg, T., Wassdal, I., Mindroiu, T., Sletten, K., Scicli, G., Carretero, O.A., Scicli, A.G. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of receptor-mediated actions of T-kinin. Gao, X., Stewart, J.M., Vavrek, R.J., Greenbaum, L.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of T-kinin on microvascular permeability and its modulation by peptidases in rat airways. Yamawaki, I., Tamaoki, J., Takeda, Y., Chiyotani, A., Sakai, N., Kameyama, S., Konno, K. J. Appl. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. T-kinin is resistant to hydrolysis by angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Passaglio, K.T., Vieira, M.A. Immunopharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Cardiovascular responses elicited by intrathecal kinins in the conscious rat. Lopes, P., Couture, R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Presence of T-kininogen and kinins in sponge-induced exudates in rats. Damas, J., Adam, A., Bourdon, V., Remacle-Volon, G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The pharmacology of T-kinin and des-Arg(11)-T-kinin in primary cultures of rat bladder smooth muscle cells. Davis, C., Burgess, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Distribution of immunoreactive T-kininogen in rat nervous tissues. Damas, J., Delrée, P., Bourdon, V. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Kininogen and kinin in experimental spinal cord injury. Xu, J., Hsu, C.Y., Junker, H., Chao, S., Hogan, E.L., Chao, J. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Ile-Ser-bradykinin (T-kinin) and Met-Ile-Ser-bradykinin (Met-T-kinin) are released from T-kininogen by an acid proteinase of granulomatous tissues in rats. Sakamoto, W., Satoh, F., Gotoh, K., Uehara, S. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and structure of T-kinin. Okamoto, H., Greenbaum, L.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. New trypsin-releasable spasmogenic substances in the plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Beltramini-Sabbag, L.M., Izumi, C., Greene, L.J. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Release of T-kinin and bradykinin in carrageenin induced inflammation in the rat. Barlas, A., Sugio, K., Greenbaum, L.M. FEBS Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Central nervous system kinin receptors and the hypertensive response mediated by bradykinin. Lindsey, C.J., Nakaie, C.R., Martins, D.T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of T-kinin-Leu(T-kinin-containing peptide) released from T-kininogen by cathepsin D of granulomatous tissues in rats. Sakamoto, W., Satoh, F., Nagasawa, S., Handa, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanisms of T-kinin-induced increases in macromolecule extravasation in vivo. Gao, X.P., Mayhan, W.G., Conlon, J.M., Rennard, S.I., Rubinstein, I. J. Appl. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification and characterization of a kallikrein-like T-kininogenase. Xiong, W., Chen, L.M., Chao, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of T-kininogen in rat urine. Okamoto, H., Itoh, N., Uwani, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of responses to T-kinin and bradykinin in the mesenteric vascular bed of the cat. Champion, H.C., Santiago, J.A., Czapla, M.A., Bivalacqua, T.J., Ilgenfritz, C., Kadowitz, P.J. Peptides (1997) [Pubmed]
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