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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L3X9Y     (2R,3S,4S,5R)-2,4,5,6- tetrahydroxy-3-[(2R...

Synonyms: Galalpha(1,3)gal, Gal-alpha-1-3-gal, Gal alpha(1,3)gal, galactosyl-(1-3)galactose, Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose, ...
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Disease relevance of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose


High impact information on Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose


Biological context of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose

  • Thus, alpha1, 2-fucosyltransferase and alpha-galactosidase effectively reduced the expression of Galalpha(1,3)Gal on the cell surface and could be used to produce transgenic pigs with negligible levels of cell surface Galalpha(1,3)Gal, thereby having no reactivity with human serum and improving graft survival [5].
  • Transfection of iGb3S cDNA resulted in high levels of cell surface Galalpha(1,3)Gal synthesized via the isoglobo series pathway, thus demonstrating that mouse iGb3S is an additional enzyme capable of synthesizing the xenoreactive Galalpha(1,3)Gal epitope [6].
  • Galalpha(1,3)Gal synthesized by iGb3S, in contrast to alpha1,3GT, was resistant to down-regulation by competition with alpha1,2fucosyltransferase [6].
  • Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that each of these groups of molecules resolved into further species of different charge (presumably due to different glycosylation) and also different molecular mass to give at least 20 different Gal alpha(1,3)Gal+ surface molecules [7].
  • Characteristics of immunoglobulin gene usage of the xenoantibody binding to gal-alpha(1,3)gal target antigens in the gal knockout mouse [8].

Anatomical context of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose


Associations of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose with other chemical compounds

  • Using pig GT as the representative member of the GT family, we show that replacement of His271 with Ala, Leu, or Gly caused complete loss of function, in contrast to replacement with Arg, another basic charged residue, which did not alter the ability of GT to produce Galalpha(1,3)Gal [14].

Gene context of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose

  • The findings are of interest and serve to explain the previously reported findings that human cells can, at times, express Gal alpha(1,3)Gal; such expression is an artefact, the reaction is due to the phenomenon described herein, i.e. that anti-Gal alpha(1,3)Gal antibodies react with mucin peptides [15].
  • Adenovirus-mediated expression of human secretor type alpha(1,2) fucosyltransferase reduces level of Gal alpha(1,3)Gal epitope [16].
  • Moreover, Galalpha(1,3)Gal synthesized by iGb3S was immunogenic and elicited Abs in GGTA1 (-/-) mice [6].
  • Comparison of the mouse gene VH441 to the human gene IGHV3-11, a gene that encodes antibody activity to galalpha(1,3)gal in humans, demonstrates that these two genes share a nonrandom distribution of amino acids used at canonical binding sites within the variable regions (complimentary determining regions 1 and 2) of their immunoglobulin VH genes [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the similarity of the Gal o/o mice and humans in their immune response to galalpha(1,3)gal epitopes [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose


  1. Galactose alpha 1-3 galactose and anti-alpha galactose antibody in normal and pathological pregnancies. Christiane, Y., Aghayan, M., Emonard, H., Lallemand, A., Mahieu, P., Foidart, J.M. Placenta (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Mimics and cross reactions of relevance to tumour immunotherapy. Apostolopoulos, V., Sandrin, M.S., McKenzie, I.F. Vaccine (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. MUC1 cross-reactive Gal alpha(1,3)Gal antibodies in humans switch immune responses from cellular to humoral. Apostolopoulos, V., Osinski, C., McKenzie, I.F. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Recent advances in xenotransplantation. Sandrin, M.S., McKenzie, I.F. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Combined transgenic expression of alpha-galactosidase and alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase leads to optimal reduction in the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3)Gal. Osman, N., McKenzie, I.F., Ostenried, K., Ioannou, Y.A., Desnick, R.J., Sandrin, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The molecular basis for galalpha(1,3)gal expression in animals with a deletion of the alpha1,3galactosyltransferase gene. Milland, J., Christiansen, D., Lazarus, B.D., Taylor, S.G., Xing, P.X., Sandrin, M.S. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Biochemical studies of pig xenoantigens detected by naturally occurring human antibodies and the galactose alpha(1-3)galactose reactive lectin. Vaughan, H.A., McKenzie, I.F., Sandrin, M.S. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Characteristics of immunoglobulin gene usage of the xenoantibody binding to gal-alpha(1,3)gal target antigens in the gal knockout mouse. Nozawa, S., Xing, P.X., Wu, G.D., Gochi, E., Kearns-Jonker, M., Swensson, J., Starnes, V.A., Sandrin, M.S., McKenzie, I.F., Cramer, D.V. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Gal alpha (1,3)Gal, the major xenoantigen(s) recognised in pigs by human natural antibodies. Sandrin, M.S., McKenzie, I.F. Immunol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Target cell susceptibility to lysis by human natural killer cells is augmented by alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase and reduced by alpha(1, 2)-fucosyltransferase. Artrip, J.H., Kwiatkowski, P., Michler, R.E., Wang, S.F., Tugulea, S., Ankersmit, J., Chisholm, L., McKenzie, I.F., Sandrin, M.S., Itescu, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Down-regulation of Gal alpha(1,3)Gal expression by alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase: further characterization of alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase transgenic mice. Cohney, S., McKenzie, I.F., Patton, K., Prenzoska, J., Ostenreid, K., Fodor, W.L., Sandrin, M.S. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A comparison of fetal and adult porcine islets with regard to Gal alpha (1,3)Gal expression and the role of human immunoglobulins and complement in islet cell cytotoxicity. Bennet, W., Björkland, A., Sundberg, B., Davies, H., Liu, J., Holgersson, J., Korsgren, O. Transplantation (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Definition and characterization of chicken Gal alpha(1,3)Gal antibodies. McKenzie, I.F., Patton, K., Smit, J.A., Mouhtouris, E., Xing, P., Myburgh, J.A., Sandrin, M.S. Transplantation (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Histidine 271 has a functional role in pig alpha-1,3galactosyltransferase enzyme activity. Lazarus, B.D., Milland, J., Ramsland, P.A., Mouhtouris, E., Sandrin, M.S. Glycobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Natural human anti-Gal alpha(1,3)Gal antibodies react with human mucin peptides. Sandrin, M.S., Vaughan, H.A., Xing, P.X., McKenzie, I.F. Glycoconj. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Adenovirus-mediated expression of human secretor type alpha(1,2) fucosyltransferase reduces level of Gal alpha(1,3)Gal epitope. Xing, L., Xia, G.H., Fei, J., Bai, X.F., Guo, L.H. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparative study of target antigens for primate xenoreactive natural antibodies in pig and rat endothelial cells. Azimzadeh, A., Wolf, P., Thibaudeau, K., Cinqualbre, J., Soulillou, J.P., Anegon, I. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Humoral human xenoreactivity against isolated pig pancreatic islets. Kin, T., Nakajima, Y., Aomatsu, Y., Kanehiro, H., Hisanaga, M., Ko, S., Ohyama, T., Nakano, H. Surgery today. (2000) [Pubmed]
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