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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Artifacts

  • A tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots and multiple microcysts or a comet tail artefact indicated cholesterol polyp and adenomyomatosis respectively [1].
  • Using experimental conditions which obviate this experimental artefact we demonstrate that TREK-1 is resistant to hypoxia and is strongly activated by arachidonic acid even at low P(O(2)) (< 4 Torr) [2].
  • ABH isoantigen localization of lymphatic channels identified lymphatic tumor emboli peripheral to and within the carcinomas, and distinguished bona fide intramammary lymphatic invasion from tissue shrinkage artefacts [3].
  • Sequence differences amongst the neuraminidase, nucleoprotein and nonstructural genes of these three H1N2 reassortant viruses as well as the isolation of reassortants in seven laboratories over a 4 month period make it unlikely that the H1N2 viruses are laboratory artefacts [4].
  • Recombinant Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein (PBP), purified from an Escherichia coli expression system, has been found to contain (11Z)-octadecenoic acid (cis-vaccenic acid) as an artefact ligand [5].

Psychiatry related information on Artifacts


High impact information on Artifacts

  • An artefact explains the apparent association of the transferrin receptor with a ras gene product [8].
  • I present here evidence that the apparent association of p21 and the transferrin receptor is an artefact of the immunoprecipitation technique [8].
  • The possibility that they were artefacts of the isolation procedures was discounted after careful studies with blanks, by varying the extraction method and because they were present almost exclusively as conjugates of glucuronic acid [9].
  • Affinity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins for their ligands: facts and artefacts [10].
  • GKLE, kininogen, and bradykininase activity were all present in VSM cells grown in defined media that contain no serum, thus eliminating any contamination or artefacts from fetal calf serum in standard culture media [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Artifacts


Biological context of Artifacts

  • Two selectable markers, one at each end of the test lacZ fragment, were employed to avoid the plating and scoring of PCR artefacts such as primer initiation in the midst of the lacZ gene, and cloning artefacts such as empty vector plasmid [15].
  • 5. The slow kinetics of action of potent NMDA receptor antagonists were not an artefact of buffered diffusion [16].
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate this cleavage in our patients, to analyze whether it is a laboratory-produced artefact and to check whether it persists or causes a real ALL1 gene rearrangement at relapse [17].
  • 3,3'-Methylenebistyrosine was also detected in the HCl hydrolysate of the hinge-ligament protein, but it was found to be an artefact produced from tyrosine and formaldehyde derived from methionine S-oxide during the HCl hydrolysis of the protein [18].
  • This extensive polydispersity was not caused by different degrees of glycosylation, or by IEF artefacts, such as binding to carrier ampholytes or carbamylation by urea [19].

Anatomical context of Artifacts

  • This result suggests that filipin treatment causes little or no artefact in either acetylcholine receptor distribution or membrane topography of fixed cells and that the distribution of filipin-sterol complexes may closely parallel the microheterogeneity of membranes that exist in living cells [20].
  • It was recently claimed that lysolecithin (lysophosphatidylcholine) in chromaffin granules is a post-mortem artefact [21].
  • The bias of gamma delta T cells towards type 1 LK production was not an artefact associated with cloning because bulk populations of splenic gamma delta T cells behaved in the same way, even when activated in the presence of high concentrations of IL-4 [22].
  • These data imply that routine endothelial cell culture with aFGF/heparin may cause artefacts, the effects of FGF and Il-1 may involve common pathways, and FGF/heparin may offer an approach to design therapeutics to counter the adverse effects of IL-1 [23].
  • The question of the hormonal identity of coupled cells and the possibility of dye coupling as an artefact led us to determine the immunoreactivity of dye-coupled magnocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus using antisera to oxytocin- and vasopressin-associated neurophysins [24].

Associations of Artifacts with chemical compounds

  • MRI results from ten volunteers showed good luminal distension, constant signal homogeneity, optimum demarcation of the bowel content from surrounding tissues, and a low rate of artefacts [25].
  • Whatever the role of tryptamine in the CNS it is clear that it not simply present as an accident of metabolism or a "biological artefact." The indications are that it possesses important functions in central neurotransmission [26].
  • Reducing glutamate release also speeded the decay of the EPSCs, and this effect was not a series resistance artefact since postsynaptic reduction of the current with CNQX did not speed the EPSC decay [27].
  • Acetylator status could be a genetic marker for Type 1 diabetes, but the increased proportion of fast acetylators in both groups suggested the possibility of an artefact due to high glucose levels [28].
  • Methods to assay proliferative effects of such mediators usually involve cell counting techniques, which are tedious to perform, or methods based on uptake of radiolabelled thymidine, which may be prone to errors caused by precursor pool artefacts [29].

Gene context of Artifacts

  • We show that the acetate sensitivity phenotype previously ascribed to yeast mutants lacking the Pdr12p and Azr1p plasma membrane transporters is an artefact arising from the use of trp1 mutant strains [30].
  • To eliminate transfer artefacts, selection was first applied for the undamaged TRP1 gene followed by counter selection for URA3 gene activity, which indicated correct repair of the DSB and DSG [31].
  • Western analysis of a yeast strain producing c-myc epitope tagged Cwp2p revealed that this protein is only detectable if fatty acid chains are present on the protein, indicating that the lack of recognition of Cwp2p by an anti beta-1,6-glucan antiserum is caused by a blotting artefact of the mature protein [32].
  • Changes in plasma and amniotic fluid endothelin levels during pregnancy: facts or artefacts [33]?
  • Fps1p channel is the mediator of the major part of glycerol passive diffusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: artefacts and re-definitions [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Artifacts

  • We performed specific tests to determine if the observed signals were artefacts arising from contamination, polymerase errors during PCR or DNA adducts created during the procedure [35].
  • A stabilizing salt bridge between P5 glutamate and arginine residues 196, 223 and 281, already identified in the mutant, provides strong evidence that this conformation is not an artefact of crystallization but represents the conformation of the circulating inhibitor in vivo [36].
  • When the filtration step is used only GSH is found, whereas both GSH and GSSG are detectable after acid precipitation, suggesting that GSSG revealed after acid treatment may be an artefact due to GSH oxidation [37].
  • Electroporation can cause artefacts due to solubilization of cations from the electrode plates. Aluminum ions enhance conversion of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in electroporated L1210 cells [38].
  • Initially it seemed that results were in agreement, but the occurrence of similar patterns in normal sera and poor reproducibility of results suggested the findings were artefacts [39].


  1. Endoscopic ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of polypoid gall bladder lesions: analysis in surgical and follow up series. Sugiyama, M., Atomi, Y., Yamato, T. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The lipid-activated two-pore domain K+ channel TREK-1 is resistant to hypoxia: implication for ischaemic neuroprotection. Buckler, K.J., Honoré, E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Intramammary lymphatic invasion in breast carcinomas. Evaluation using ABH isoantigens as endothelial markers. Lee, A.K., DeLellis, R.A., Wolfe, H.J. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Human influenza A (H1N2) viruses isolated from China. Guo, Y.J., Xu, X.Y., Cox, N.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Detection and removal of an artefact fatty acid from the binding site of recombinant Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein. Oldham, N.J., Krieger, J., Breer, H., Svatos, A. Chem. Senses (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Chronic alcoholism and canine exocrine pancreas secretion. A long term follow-up study. Sarles, H., Tiscornia, O., Palasciano, G. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of moderate exercise on urinary MHPG in depressed patients. Beckmann, H., Ebert, M.H., Post, R., Goodwin, F.K. Pharmakopsychiatrie, Neuro-Psychopharmakologie. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. An artefact explains the apparent association of the transferrin receptor with a ras gene product. Harford, J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Lignans in man and in animal species. Setchell, K.D., Lawson, A.M., Mitchell, F.L., Adlercreutz, H., Kirk, D.N., Axelson, M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Affinity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins for their ligands: facts and artefacts. Goody, R.S., Frech, M., Wittinghofer, A. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture express kallikrein, kininogen, and bradykininase activity. Oza, N.B., Schwartz, J.H., Goud, H.D., Levinsky, N.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Distribution of fast heart rate episodes during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Hnatkova, K., Murgatroyd, F.D., Alferness, C.A., Camm, A.J., Malik, M. Heart (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Artefact on MRA following aneurysm clipping: an in vitro study and prospective comparison with conventional angiography. Grieve, J.P., Stacey, R., Moore, E., Kitchen, N.D., Jäger, H.R. Neuroradiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Swelling of hepatocytes injured by oxidative stress suggests pathological changes related to macromolecular crowding. Del Monte, U. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The fidelity of Taq polymerase catalyzing PCR is improved by an N-terminal deletion. Barnes, W.M. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure-activity analysis of binding kinetics for NMDA receptor competitive antagonists: the influence of conformational restriction. Benveniste, M., Mayer, M.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Cleavage of the ALL1 gene in acute lymphoid leukemia before treatment disappears in relapse. Anguita, E., Villegas, A., Serra, A., González, F.A., Ropero, P., Contra, T., Saglio, G. Haematologica (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Desmosine and isodesmosine as cross-links in the hinge-ligament protein of bivalves. 3,3'-Methylenebistyrosine as an artefact. Kikuchi, Y., Tsuchikura, O., Hirama, M., Tamiya, N. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Charge heterogeneity of recombinant pro-urokinase and urinary urokinase, as revealed by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients. Righetti, P.G., Barzaghi, B., Sarubbi, E., Soffientini, A., Cassani, G. J. Chromatogr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Distribution of filipin-sterol complexes on cultured muscle cells: cell-substratum contact areas associated with acetylcholine receptor clusters. Bridgman, P.C., Nakajima, Y. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Is lysolecithin an in vivo constituent of chromaffin granules? Frischenschlager, I., Schmidt, W., Winkler, H. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Patterns of lymphokine secretion amongst mouse gamma delta T cell clones. Duhindan, N., Farley, A.J., Humphreys, S., Parker, C., Rossiter, B., Brooks, C.G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Fibroblast growth factor and heparin protect endothelial cells from the effects of interleukin 1. Minter, A.J., Keoshkerian, E., Chesterman, C.N., Dawes, J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Dye-coupled magnocellular peptidergic neurons of the rat paraventricular nucleus show homotypic immunoreactivity. Cobbett, P., Smithson, K.G., Hatton, G.I. Neuroscience (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Non-invasive distension of the small bowel for magnetic-resonance imaging. Patak, M.A., Froehlich, J.M., von Weymarn, C., Ritz, M.A., Zollikofer, C.L., Wentz, K. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Tryptamine: a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter in mammalian brain? Jones, R.S. Prog. Neurobiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Pre- and postsynaptic determinants of EPSC waveform at cerebellar climbing fiber and parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses. Takahashi, M., Kovalchuk, Y., Attwell, D. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Acetylator status and diabetic neuropathy. Shenfield, G.M., McCann, V.J., Tjokresetio, R. Diabetologia (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. A rapid and convenient assay for counting cells cultured in microwell plates: application for assessment of growth factors. Oliver, M.H., Harrison, N.K., Bishop, J.E., Cole, P.J., Laurent, G.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Weak organic acid stress inhibits aromatic amino acid uptake by yeast, causing a strong influence of amino acid auxotrophies on the phenotypes of membrane transporter mutants. Bauer, B.E., Rossington, D., Mollapour, M., Mamnun, Y., Kuchler, K., Piper, P.W. Eur. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. The use of a double-marker shuttle vector to study DNA double-strand break repair in wild-type and radiation-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jha, B., Ahne, F., Eckardt-Schupp, F. Curr. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. The retention mechanism of cell wall proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wall-bound Cwp2p is beta-1,6-glucosylated. van der Vaart, J.M., van Schagen, F.S., Mooren, A.T., Chapman, J.W., Klis, F.M., Verrips, C.T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Changes in plasma and amniotic fluid endothelin levels during pregnancy: facts or artefacts? Carbonne, B., Mignot, T.M., Tsatsaris, V., Ferré, F. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Fps1p channel is the mediator of the major part of glycerol passive diffusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: artefacts and re-definitions. Oliveira, R., Lages, F., Silva-Graça, M., Lucas, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Mutational spectrometry without phenotypic selection: human mitochondrial DNA. Khrapko, K., Coller, H., André, P., Li, X.C., Foret, F., Belenky, A., Karger, B.L., Thilly, W.G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Wild-type alpha 1-antitrypsin is in the canonical inhibitory conformation. Elliott, P.R., Abrahams, J.P., Lomas, D.A. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Ultrarapid capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in red blood cells. Carru, C., Zinellu, A., Pes, G.M., Marongiu, G., Tadolini, B., Deiana, L. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Electroporation can cause artefacts due to solubilization of cations from the electrode plates. Aluminum ions enhance conversion of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in electroporated L1210 cells. Loomis-Husselbee, J.W., Cullen, P.J., Irvine, R.F., Dawson, A.P. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Examination of complement C3 metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis using 2-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. Shadforth, M.F., McNaughton, D.C. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1978) [Pubmed]
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