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Chemical Compound Review

Optalidon     5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-prop-2- enyl-1,3...

Synonyms: Profundal, Sandoptal, Alisobumal, butalbital, Butalbitale, ...
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Disease relevance of Itobarbital

  • We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion [1].
  • The medication, which contained butalbital, was self-administered in escalating doses for the treatment of chronic headaches [2].
  • There were claims for migraine drugs (ICD-9 code for triptans or ergot compounds) for just 140 (11.1%) SM and 34 (2.7%) PM sufferers, and migraine analgesics (butalbital and isomethepthene compounds), for 6.3% SM and 2.2% PM sufferers (0.7% of the controls) [3].
  • The butalbital-containing compounds are efficacious in placebo-controlled trials among patients with episodic tension-type headaches [4].
  • Our study gives a comprehensive insight into the structure of the bacterial and archaeal community of a profundal lake sediment, indicating that sulphate reducers, syntrophs, bacteroidetes, halorespirers and methanogens are of particular importance in Lake Kinneret sediment [5].

Psychiatry related information on Itobarbital


High impact information on Itobarbital

  • Phylogenetic delineation with partial (345 bp) 16S rRNA gene sequences of clones obtained from sediments confirmed the fidelity of the amplified nitrosomonad DNA and identified two sequence clusters closely related to either N. europaea or N. eutropha that were equated with the littoral and profundal sediment sites, respectively [8].
  • The most rostral branchiomeric nerves, the profundal and trigeminal nerves, appear to arise solely from an ectodermal placode and from neural crest, respectively [9].
  • The thaw pond sediment had the largest viable microbial biomass, while the profundal sediment had the smallest [10].
  • The microbial community structure of an anoxic profundal lake sediment, i.e., subtropical Lake Kinneret, was analysed with respect to its composition by culture-independent molecular methods including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, comparative sequence analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR [5].
  • To monitor their presence and fate in the aquatic environment, a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed to quantify butalbital, secobarbital, hexobarbital, aprobarbital, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital, all with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1 ng/L [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Itobarbital


Biological context of Itobarbital

  • Thus, we conclude that amobarbital, butalbital, and secobarbital inhibit platelet aggregation by suppressing [Ca2+]i increase without affecting IP3 formation [13].
  • A novel sediment bubble gas sampler and a subsurface bubble gas collector were designed to measure the ebullition of gases from profundal sediments of aquatic ecosystems [14].
  • Certain side effects of butalbital, such as drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, and a feeling of intoxication, could affect pilot performance and become a significant factor in an aviation accident [15].
  • The higher release of algal products of photosynthesis in the photic zone than in the profundal is probably caused by the inhibition of physiological activity of bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by algae [16].
  • Based on a pharmacokinetic model, the following conclusions can be drawn: a) There is no change in bioavailability due to the combination of the three components in Optalidon in respect to their single administration [17].

Anatomical context of Itobarbital


Associations of Itobarbital with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Itobarbital

  • The eluates containing butalbital as internal standard were separated with a 7-microm Chromsystems C18 250 x 4.0 mm I.D. reversed-phase column at a temperature of 40 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of pH 3.8 phosphate-acetonitrile buffer (55:45, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min [24].
  • Ectodermal placodes comprise the adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, profundal, trigeminal, otic, lateral line, and epibranchial placodes [25].
  • Should butalbital-containing analgesics be banned? Yes [26].
  • (Tubificidae: Tubificinae) is described from the profundal zone (74 m) of Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake (up to 155 m) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in China. The new species is assigned to Potamothrix because of its short vasa deferentia and its tubular atria without ejaculatory ducts and prostate glands [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Itobarbital

  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 consecutive patients in an inpatient pain rehabilitation program who were withdrawn from overuse of butalbital-combination medications using a phenobarbital-loading protocol [21].
  • Butalbital was quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection [28].
  • Although the butalbital-containing combination provided consistently greater analgesia, the differences between active medications were not statistically significant [29].
  • Each component was investigated after oral administration, alone and in combination either with one of the others (i.e. A+B, B+C, C+A) or with both of the others in Optalidon (A+B+C) [17].


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  2. Barbiturate withdrawal following Internet purchase of Fioricet. Romero, C.E., Baron, J.D., Knox, A.P., Hinchey, J.A., Ropper, A.H. Arch. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Patterns of medical diagnosis and treatment of migraine and probable migraine in a health plan. Bigal, M.E., Kolodner, K.B., Lafata, J.E., Leotta, C., Lipton, R.B. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Butalbital in the treatment of headache: history, pharmacology, and efficacy. Silberstein, S.D., McCrory, D.C. Headache. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Community structure of Archaea and Bacteria in a profundal lake sediment Lake Kinneret (Israel). Schwarz, J.I., Eckert, W., Conrad, R. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Do butalbital-containing products have a role in the management of migraine? Wenzel, R.G., Sarvis, C.A. Pharmacotherapy (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Organic dissociative syndrome associated with antimigraine pharmacotherapy. Good, M.I. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Phylogenetic differentiation of two closely related Nitrosomonas spp. That inhabit different sediment environments in an oligotrophic freshwater lake. Whitby, C.B., Saunders, J.R., Rodriguez, J., Pickup, R.W., McCarthy, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of branchiomeric and lateral line nerves in the axolotl. Northcutt, R.G., Brändle, K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Mineralization of glucose and lignocellulose by four arctic freshwater sediments in response to nutrient enrichment. McKinley, V.L., Vestal, J.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Occurrence and fate of barbiturates in the aquatic environment. Peschka, M., Eubeler, J.P., Knepper, T.P. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A newborn with a skin lesion on the back. Benton, T.J., Cheema, R., Nirgiotis, J.G. The Journal of family practice (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of barbiturates on human platelet aggregation differ depending on their chemical structures. Sato, M., Hirakata, H., Ikeda, M., Fukuda, K. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel sediment gas sampler and a subsurface gas collector used for measurement of the ebullition of methane and carbon dioxide from a eutrophied lake. Huttunen, J.T., Lappalainen, K.M., Saarijärvi, E., Väsänen, T., Martikainen, P.J. Sci. Total Environ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Distribution of butalbital in postmortem tissues and fluids from non-overdose cases. Lewis, R.J., Johnson, R.D., Southern, T.L., Canfield, D.V. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Primary production and extracellular release by phytoplankton in some lakes of the Masurian Lake District, Poland. Chróst, R.J., Wazyk, M. Acta Microbiol. Pol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Drug interactions of the components of Optalidon after oral administration. Lavene, D., Longchampt, J., Guillaume, M.F., Kiger, J.L. International journal of clinical pharmacology and biopharmacy. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Attenuation by butalbital of capsaicin-induced c-fos-like immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Cutrer, F.M., Mitsikostas, D.D., Ayata, G., Sanchez del Rio, M. Headache. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Non-uniform effects of neurohumoral agents on the internal diameter in parallel and series arranged small arteries in rabbit hindlimb. Sada, K., Ninomiya, I., Imanishi, K., Iwaki, Y., Shirai, M. Jpn. J. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Cranial nerves of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae [Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii: Actinistia], and comparisons with other craniata. Northcutt, R.G., Bemis, W.E. Brain Behav. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Oral phenobarbital loading: a safe and effective method of withdrawing patients with headache from butalbital compounds. Loder, E., Biondi, D. Headache. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Mercury and chlorinated hydrocarbons in zoobenthos of Lake Päijänne, Finland. Särkkä, J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Determination of butalbital, caffeine and propyphenazone in pharmaceutical preparations by gas chromatography method. Marković, S., Kusec, Z. Die Pharmazie. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Optimized procedure for lamotrigine analysis in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography without interferences from other frequently coadministered anticonvulsants. Torra, M., Rodamilans, M., Arroyo, S., Corbella, J. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Evolutionary origins of vertebrate placodes: insights from developmental studies and from comparisons with other deuterostomes. Schlosser, G. J. exp. zool. B. Mol. Dev. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Should butalbital-containing analgesics be banned? Yes. Young, W.B., Siow, H.C. Current pain and headache reports. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Potamothrix scleropenis sp. nov. (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) from Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake in southwest China. Cui, Y.D., Wang, H.Z. Zool. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Blood and plasma concentrations of butalbital following single oral doses in man. Drost, M.L., Walter, L. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Analgesic effect of an aspirin-codeine-butalbital-caffeine combination and an acetaminophen-codeine combination in postoperative oral surgery pain. Forbes, J.A., Jones, K.F., Smith, W.K., Gongloff, C.M. Pharmacotherapy (1986) [Pubmed]
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