The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Barbamyl     5-ethyl-5-(3-methylbutyl)- 1,3-diazinane-2...

Synonyms: Barbamil, Binoctal, Dorlotyn, Dormytal, Eunoctal, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of amobarbital


Psychiatry related information on amobarbital


High impact information on amobarbital

  • Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by cyanide, azide, or Amytal abolished acid secretion; the subsequent addition of ATP to shocked glands increased the aminopyrine accumulation ratio to 47 and resulted in an acridine orange fluorescence indistinguishable from that of histamine-stimulated, unshocked glands [10].
  • Amytal, a blocker of site I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, abolished the K+ effect, indicating a mitochondrial origin for the recorded changes [11].
  • We compared (15)O water positron emission tomography (PET) auditory and visual confrontational naming activation with an intracarotid amobarbital (Amytal) injection procedure (IAP) for language lateralization in 12 patients with intractable epilepsy [12].
  • Brain single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images acquired after injecting Tc-99m-HMPAO into the internal carotid artery (ICA) during an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP SPECT) provide anatomical information on the blood flow distribution from the ICA [13].
  • Three patients undergoing selective amobarbital test of the posterior cerebral artery were included [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of amobarbital


Biological context of amobarbital


Anatomical context of amobarbital

  • Isolated myocyte suspensions were incubated with 3 mmol/l (millimolar) iodoacetic acid and 6 mmol/l amytal (inhibited) or were pelleted into a slurry and layered with oil (ischemic) in the presence and absence of 10 or 50 mumol/l (micromolar) mepacrine [24].
  • METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were anaesthetised with amobarbital, the femoral veins were cannulated and laparotomies were performed [25].
  • These results indicate that relying solely on amobarbital memory testing to assess the functional ability of the contralateral temporal lobe to sustain global memory prior to temporal lobectomy may needlessly exclude patients from a viable therapeutic option [26].
  • Ten patients for whom follow-up neuropsychological assessment was available failed either the early or late item recognition portions of their amobarbital evaluation ipsilateral to seizure onset, but had hippocampus included in the temporal lobectomy by virtue of satisfactory performance on other tests of hippocampal function [26].
  • Carotid artery dissection after the intracarotid amobarbital test [27].

Associations of amobarbital with other chemical compounds


Gene context of amobarbital

  • Intracarotid amobarbital procedure memory results were related to CA3 neuronal loss only [32].
  • In addition, the activity of AS-3201 N-glucosyltransferase significantly correlated with that of amobarbital N-glucosyltransferase in microsomes from sixteen human livers (r=0.964, P<0.01), indicating that UGT2B isoforms were also involved in the barbiturate N-glucosidation in humans [33].
  • Results indicate that hGH slows the metabolism of amobarbital, probably through an effect on the hepatic microsomal drug-oxidizing system [34].
  • In an effort to identify patients at risk for behavioral complications, we reviewed 92 patients undergoing ISA evaluation and found five with severe changes in affect and behavior following amobarbital injection, ranging from prolonged coma to an extended confusional state [35].
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and amobarbital resistance [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of amobarbital


  1. Brain injury, handedness, and speech lateralization in a series of amobarbital studies. Woods, R.P., Dodrill, C.B., Ojemann, G.A. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence that mitochondrial respiration is a source of potentially toxic oxygen free radicals in intact rabbit hearts subjected to ischemia and reflow. Ambrosio, G., Zweier, J.L., Duilio, C., Kuppusamy, P., Santoro, G., Elia, P.P., Tritto, I., Cirillo, P., Condorelli, M., Chiariello, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Respiratory failure after clonazepam and amobarbital. Honer, W.G., Rosenberg, R.G., Turey, M., Fisher, W.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Maternal and neonatal elimination of amobarbital after treatment of the mother with barbiturates during late pregnancy. Draffan, G.H., Dollery, C.T., Davies, D.S., Krauer, B., Williams, F.M., Clare, R.A., Trudinger, B.J., Darling, M., Sertel, H., Hawkins, D.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Controlled investigation of the amobarbital interview for catatonic mutism. McCall, W.V., Shelp, F.E., McDonald, W.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Overview: clinical applications of the Amytal interview in psychiatric emergency settings. Perry, J.C., Jacobs, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Use of the amobarbital interview to determine appropriate behavior therapy. Feldman, J., Meyding, G.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Case report of conversion symptom associated with major depressive disorder in a child. Weller, E.B., Weller, R.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Right hemisphere speech perception revealed by amobarbital injection and electrical interference. Boatman, D., Hart, J., Lesser, R.P., Honeycutt, N., Anderson, N.B., Miglioretti, D., Gordon, B. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. ATP dependence of H+ secretion. Berglindh, T., Dibona, D.R., Pace, C.S., Sachs, G. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Pyridine nucleotide redox state parallels production of aldosterone in potassium-stimulated adrenal glomerulosa cells. Pralong, W.F., Hunyady, L., Várnai, P., Wollheim, C.B., Spät, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. (15)O water positron emission tomography in language localization: a study comparing positron emission tomography visual and computerized region of interest analysis with the Wada test. Hunter, K.E., Blaxton, T.A., Bookheimer, S.Y., Figlozzi, C., Gaillard, W.D., Grandin, C., Anyanwu, A., Theodore, W.H. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Probabilistic map of blood flow distribution in the brain from the internal carotid artery. Lee, J.S., Lee, D.S., Kim, Y.K., Kim, J., Lee, H.Y., Lee, S.K., Chung, J.K., Lee, M.C. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. SATSCOM--Selective amobarbital test intraarterial SPECT coregistered to MRI: description of a method assessing selective perfusion. von Oertzen, J., Klemm, E., Urbach, H., Kurthen, M., de Greiff, A., Linke, D.B., Biersack, H.J., Elger, C.E. Neuroimage (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Rectal administration of sodium valproate in status epilepticus. Vajda, F.J., Mihaly, G.W., Miles, J.L., Donnan, G.A., Bladin, P.F. Neurology (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on contracture and injury of isolated rat myocytes following metabolic inhibition and ischemia. Armstrong, S.C., Ganote, C.E. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Cardioprotective effect of chronic hyperglycemia: effect on hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Schaffer, S.W., Croft, C.B., Solodushko, V. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Methylphenidate in amytal-resistant mutism. Frost, L.H. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurobehavioral differences in superselective Wada testing with amobarbital versus lidocaine. Fitzsimmons, B.F., Marshall, R.S., Pile-Spellman, J., Lazar, R.M. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Cellular energetics and the oxygen dependence of respiration in cardiac myocytes isolated from adult rat. Rumsey, W.L., Schlosser, C., Nuutinen, E.M., Robiolio, M., Wilson, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Heart rate does not decrease after right hemispheric amobarbital injection. Jokeit, H., Noerpel, I., Herbord, E., Ebner, A. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic study of amobarbital elimination based on its kinetics in twins. Endrenyi, L., Inaba, T., Kalow, W. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. A method for studying drug metabolism in populations: racial differences in amobarbital metabolism. Kalow, W., Tang, B.K., Kadar, D., Endrenyi, L., Chan, F.Y. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of the phospholipase inhibitor mepacrine on injury in ischemic and metabolically inhibited adult isolated myocytes. Armstrong, S.C., Ganote, C.E. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Photochemically induced colonic ischaemic lesions: a new model of ischaemic colitis in rats. Yano, Y., Yao, H., Aoyagi, K., Kawakubo, K., Nakamura, S., Doi, K., Ibayashi, S., Fujishima, M. Gut (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure as a predictor of memory failure following unilateral temporal lobectomy. Loring, D.W., Lee, G.P., Meador, K.J., Flanigin, H.F., Smith, J.R., Figueroa, R.E., Martin, R.C. Neurology (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Carotid artery dissection after the intracarotid amobarbital test. Loddenkemper, T., Morris, H.H., Perl, J. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Barbiturate effects on acetylcholine-activated channels in Aplysia neurons. Wachtel, R.E., Wilson, W.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. A re-evaluation of the role of mitochondrial pyruvate transport in the hormonal control of rat liver mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism. Halestrap, A.P., Armston, A.E. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Adenosine, inosine, and guanosine protect glial cells during glucose deprivation and mitochondrial inhibition: correlation between protection and ATP preservation. Jurkowitz, M.S., Litsky, M.L., Browning, M.J., Hohl, C.M. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Anatomic correlates of memory from intracarotid amobarbital injections with technetium Tc 99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT. Hart, J., Lewis, P.J., Lesser, R.P., Fisher, R.S., Monsein, L.H., Schwerdt, P., Bandeen-Roche, K., Gordon, B. Arch. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. The neural substrate of memory impairment demonstrated by the intracarotid amobarbital procedure. Sass, K.J., Lencz, T., Westerveld, M., Novelly, R.A., Spencer, D.D., Kim, J.H. Arch. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Uridine diphosphate sugar-selective conjugation of an aldose reductase inhibitor (AS-3201) by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B subfamily in human liver microsomes. Toide, K., Terauchi, Y., Fujii, T., Yamazaki, H., Kamataki, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of human growth hormone on amobarbital metabolism in children. Redmond, G.P., Bell, J.J., Perel, J.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  35. Severe behavioral complications following intracarotid sodium amobarbital injection: implications for hemispheric asymmetry of emotion. Lee, G.P., Loring, D.W., Meador, K.J., Flanigin, H.F., Brooks, B.S. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and amobarbital resistance. Ringman, J.M., Grant, A.C. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Language mapping in less than 15 minutes: real-time functional MRI during routine clinical investigation. Fernández, G., de Greiff, A., von Oertzen, J., Reuber, M., Lun, S., Klaver, P., Ruhlmann, J., Reul, J., Elger, C.E. Neuroimage (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of anoxic or oxygenated reperfusion in globally ischemic, isovolumic, perfused rat hearts. Ganote, C.E., Humphrey, S.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. False positives in the differential diagnosis of confusion with amytal. Shevitz, S. The American journal of psychiatry. (1978) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities