The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Elasmobranchii

  • The purpose of this study was to determine if an HKalpha1 orthologue exists in an elasmobranch (Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina), to determine if it is expressed in gills and, if so, to localize its expression and determine if its expression is regulated during hypercapnia or freshwater acclimation [1].

High impact information on Elasmobranchii

  • Previously, we have shown that multiple germline genes and mammalian-like recombination signal sequences are associated with the VH gene family of Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a primitive elasmobranch [2].
  • ANG II stimulates the SNS in agnathans, elasmobranchs, teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals [3].
  • Granulated juxtaglomerular cells similar to the renin-containing cells of the mammalian nephron are found in most extant vertebrate species although not in agnathan and elasmobranch fish [3].
  • Elasmobranch fishes, the coelacanth, estivating lungfish, amphibians, and mammals synthesize urea by the ornithine-urea cycle; by comparison, urea synthetic activity is generally insignificant in teleostean fishes [4].
  • Toadfish synthesize urea using enzymes and subcellular distributions similar to those of elasmobranchs: glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthethase (CPS III) and mitochondrial arginase [4].

Biological context of Elasmobranchii


Anatomical context of Elasmobranchii


Associations of Elasmobranchii with chemical compounds

  • Glutamine- and N-acetylglutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase in elasmobranchs [15].
  • This histidine is invariant in all amniotic CA isozymes sequenced to date, as well as the CAs from elasmobranch and algal sources and in a viral CA-related protein [16].
  • Effect of albumin binding on extraction of sulfobromophthalein by perfused elasmobranch liver: evidence for dissociation-limited uptake [17].
  • Glutamine synthetase and arginase are mitochondrial enzymes in uricotelic species, but are normally found in the cytoplasm in ureotelic species. the properties of the elasmobranch arginase, however, are characteristic of arginases from ureotelic species (e.g. the Km for arginine is 1.2 mM, and the enzyme has an Mr congruent to 100,000) [18].
  • Identification of a facilitated UT in the kidney of the Atlantic stingray provides further support for the proposal that passive mechanisms contribute to urea reabsorption by elasmobranch kidney [5].

Gene context of Elasmobranchii

  • The distribution of DRP is conserved across a large evolutionary distance, from mammals to elasmobranchs, suggesting that DRP may play a role in the maintenance of regional specializations in the brain [19].
  • Comparative vascular responses in elasmobranchs to different structures of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY [20].
  • Here we isolate and characterize CXCR genes from a range of elasmobranch species [21].
  • The polyclonal antibody R6, which was raised against porcine relaxin, reacts with a wide variety of naturally occurring relaxins from primates, marine and terrestrial mammals, and elasmobranchs but does not recognize insulin [22].
  • From an evolutionary point of view, the appearance of BGP seems to parallel the appearance of hydroxyapatite-containing bone structures since it has never been found in elasmobranchs, whose skeleton is composed of calcified cartilage [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Elasmobranchii


  1. A putative H+-K+-ATPase in the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina: primary sequence and expression in gills. Choe, K.P., Verlander, J.W., Wingo, C.S., Evans, D.H. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Major reorganization of immunoglobulin VH segmental elements during vertebrate evolution. Hinds, K.R., Litman, G.W. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. The renin-angiotensin system in nonmammalian vertebrates. Wilson, J.X. Endocr. Rev. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Evolution of urea synthesis in vertebrates: the piscine connection. Mommsen, T.P., Walsh, P.J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular and functional characterization of a urea transporter from the kidney of the Atlantic stingray. Janech, M.G., Fitzgibbon, W.R., Chen, R., Nowak, M.W., Miller, D.H., Paul, R.V., Ploth, D.W. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein from freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp.). Nunez, B.S., Piermarini, P.M., Evans, A.N., Applebaum, S.L. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A single and novel natriuretic peptide is expressed in the heart and brain of the most primitive vertebrate, the hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri). Kawakoshi, A., Hyodo, S., Yasuda, A., Takei, Y. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of the myelin basic proteins in the shark, Squalus acanthias, and the ray, Raja erinacia. Spivack, W.D., Zhong, N., Salerno, S., Saavedra, R.A., Gould, R.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Phylogeny of elasmobranchs based on LSU and SSU ribosomal RNA genes. Winchell, C.J., Martin, A.P., Mallatt, J. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a transmembrane glycoprotein specific for secretory vesicles of neural and endocrine cells. Buckley, K., Kelly, R.B. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Topological organization of proteins in an intracellular secretory organelle: the synaptic vesicle. Wagner, J.A., Kelly, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutamine-dependent synthesis of citrulline by isolated hepatic mitochondria from Squalus acanthias. Anderson, P.M., Casey, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. A large chondroitin sulfate basement membrane-associated proteoglycan exists as a disulfide-stabilized complex of several proteins. Iwata, M., Carlson, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification of synaptic vesicles from elasmobranch electric organ and the use of biophysical criteria to demonstrate purity. Carlson, S.S., Wagner, J.A., Kelly, R.B. Biochemistry (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutamine- and N-acetylglutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase in elasmobranchs. Anderson, P.M. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Venta, P.J., Welty, R.J., Johnson, T.M., Sly, W.S., Tashian, R.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of albumin binding on extraction of sulfobromophthalein by perfused elasmobranch liver: evidence for dissociation-limited uptake. Weisiger, R.A., Zacks, C.M., Smith, N.D., Boyer, J.L. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Subcellular location of glutamine synthetase and urea cycle enzymes in liver of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Casey, C.A., Anderson, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. The subcellular distribution of chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein in the brain. Khurana, T.S., Watkins, S.C., Kunkel, L.M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative vascular responses in elasmobranchs to different structures of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Preston, E., Jönsson, A.C., McManus, C.D., Conlon, J.M., Courtice, G.P. Regul. Pept. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and characterization of CXC receptor genes in a range of elasmobranchs. Goostrey, A., Jones, G., Secombes, C.J. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemical synthesis of a Zwitterhormon, insulaxin, and of a relaxin-like bombyxin derivative. Büllesbach, E.E., Steinetz, B.G., Schwabe, C. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning of the bone Gla protein gene from the teleost fish Sparus aurata. Evidence for overall conservation in gene organization and bone-specific expression from fish to man. Pinto, J.P., Ohresser, M.C., Cancela, M.L. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Measurement of 1alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and other corticosteroids in elasmobranch plasma by radioimmunoassay. Kime, D.E. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Glomerular Effects of AVT on the In Situ Perfused Trunk Preparation of the Dogfish. Wells, A., Anderson, W.G., Hazon, N. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Lithium in marine elasmobranchs as a natural marker of rectal gland contribution in sodium balance. Fleishman, D.G., Saulus, A.A., Vasilieva, V.F. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of water temperature and salinity on parathyroid hormone-related protein in the circulation and tissues of elasmobranchs. Trivett, M.K., Walker, T.I., Clement, J.G., Ho, P.M., Martin, T.J., Danks, J.A. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities