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MeSH Review

International Classification of Diseases

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Disease relevance of International Classification of Diseases

  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD) codes to identify hospitalizations with clinical evidence of an episode of acute CHF in data of The Corpus Christi Heart Project, a population-based surveillance program for hospitalized coronary heart disease [1].
  • Accuracy of ICD codes 430 to 438.9 (n=678) revealed the highest proportion of incident strokes identified by the acute stroke diagnoses (ICD-9 codes 430, 431, 434, and 436) [2].
  • There were claims for migraine drugs (ICD-9 code for triptans or ergot compounds) for just 140 (11.1%) SM and 34 (2.7%) PM sufferers, and migraine analgesics (butalbital and isomethepthene compounds), for 6.3% SM and 2.2% PM sufferers (0.7% of the controls) [3].
  • As alcohol abuse has been implicated in rosacea, and alcohol can confound symptoms of depression, an "Alcohol" variable was created by grouping all ICD-9-CM codes related to alcohol dependence and abuse (codes 303, 303.0, 303.9 and 305.0) [4].
  • Nearly all (96%) of the 445 matched incident cases in 1994 had claims data (CPT, DRG, or ICD-9 code) indicative of breast cancer [5].

Psychiatry related information on International Classification of Diseases

  • METHOD: In 48 chronically intoxicated alcoholics (diagnosed according to ICD-10), withdrawal symptoms were examined and the presence of a variable-number tandem repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the DAT1 gene was determined [6].
  • DNA polymorphisms in MAOA and MAOB genes were screened by molecular analysis in 68 individuals (47 males and 21 females) meeting ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling and 68 healthy comparison controls matched for age and sex [7].
  • The results show that RDC and ICD-9 are similar, in that for both systems, a high GH response correlates with a schizoaffective disorder and distinguishes those patients significantly from manic patients [8].
  • The effects of moclobemide (300-600 mg/day), a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor - A (MAOI-A), were compared in a double-blind, multi-centre trial with those of clomipramine (100-200 mg/day) on 129 in-patients suffering from endogenous depression (according to ICD-9 and the Newcastle Scale) [9].
  • Prevalence of dementia according to DSM-III-R and ICD-10: results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+) Part 1 [10].

High impact information on International Classification of Diseases


Chemical compound and disease context of International Classification of Diseases


Biological context of International Classification of Diseases

  • METHODS: We used the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to describe DMARD use by patients with RA identified using ICD-9 codes [21].
  • METHODS: Eighteen children with a refined phenotype of ADHD, who also met ICD-10 criteria for hyperkinetic disorder (mean age 10.4 years), and 16 normal children (mean age 10.3 years) were compared using magnetic resonance imaging [22].
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one alcohol-dependent smokers and 327 non-alcohol-dependent smokers diagnosed as ICD-10 and DSM-IV-nicotine dependent, were investigated by means of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Lübeck Craving-Recurrence Risk Questionnaire and the Lesch Alcohol Dependence Typology (both adapted to smoking) [23].
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) testing, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and treatment with any Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for osteoporosis were identified using CPT, ICD-9, and National Drug Codes for the 6-month post-fracture period [24].

Associations of International Classification of Diseases with chemical compounds


Gene context of International Classification of Diseases

  • The present study investigated frequencies of HLA-A specificities in schizophrenia patients (ICD-10 and DSM-III-R, n=98) and sex-matched healthy controls (n=392) from population in the southwestern part of Japan. HLA-B and -C specificities were studied in addition [30].
  • Analyses of paternal transmission of alleles of GABRA5 provided evidence for association with alcoholism, particularly in the Caucasian population and with the stricter ICD-10 definition of alcoholism (P < 0.004) [31].
  • Ten CYP2D6 genotyped and depressive (F32x and F33x, ICD-10) patients participated in an open study on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of a carbamazepine augmentation in VEN non-responders [32].
  • Somatoform autonomic dysfunction, a diagnostic category proposed by ICD-10, included fewer patients diagnosed with somatization disorder than the criteria of Escobar and colleagues for abridged somatization disorder (SSI-4/6: this Journal 177:140-146, 1989) [33].
  • A retrospective chart review for all stroke patients with primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes 434 and 436 admitted to the 9 hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000 was used to determine outcomes of patients treated with intravenous tPA [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of International Classification of Diseases


  1. Congestive heart failure in the United States: is there more than meets the I(CD code)? The Corpus Christi Heart Project. Goff, D.C., Pandey, D.K., Chan, F.A., Ortiz, C., Nichaman, M.Z. Arch. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of incident stroke in Norway: hospital discharge data compared with a population-based stroke register. Ellekjaer, H., Holmen, J., Krüger, O., Terent, A. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Patterns of medical diagnosis and treatment of migraine and probable migraine in a health plan. Bigal, M.E., Kolodner, K.B., Lafata, J.E., Leotta, C., Lipton, R.B. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Comorbidity of rosacea and depression: an analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey--Outpatient Department data collected by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics from 1995 to 2002. Gupta, M.A., Gupta, A.K., Chen, S.J., Johnson, A.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Linked insurance-tumor registry database for health services research. Doebbeling, B.N., Wyant, D.K., McCoy, K.D., Riggs, S., Woolson, R.F., Wagner, D., Wilson, R.T., Lynch, C.F. Medical care. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Modification of alcohol withdrawal by the A9 allele of the dopamine transporter gene. Schmidt, L.G., Harms, H., Kuhn, S., Rommelspacher, H., Sander, T. The American journal of psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Pathological gambling and DNA polymorphic markers at MAO-A and MAO-B genes. Ibañez, A., de Castro, I.P., Fernandez-Piqueras, J., Blanco, C., Saiz-Ruiz, J. Mol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Growth hormone response to apomorphine and diagnosis: a comparison of three diagnostic systems. Hirschowitz, J., Zemlan, F.P., Hitzemann, R.J., Fleischmann, R.L., Garver, D.L. Biol. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Moclobemide versus clomipramine in endogenous depression. A double-blind randomised clinical trial. Guelfi, J.D., Payan, C., Fermanian, J., Pedarriosse, A.M., Manfredi, R. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Prevalence of dementia according to DSM-III-R and ICD-10: results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+) Part 1. Riedel-Heller, S.G., Busse, A., Aurich, C., Matschinger, H., Angermeyer, M.C. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Homosexuality in the International Classification of Diseases: a clarification. van Drimmelen-Krabbe, J.J., Ustun, T.B., Thompson, D.H., l'Hours, A., Orley, J., Sartorius, N. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Accuracy of Veterans Administration databases for a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Singh, J.A., Holmgren, A.R., Noorbaloochi, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow with venlafaxine in the treatment of major depression. Davies, J., Lloyd, K.R., Jones, I.K., Barnes, A., Pilowsky, L.S. The American journal of psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Should we screen for hemochromatosis? An examination of evidence of downstream effects on morbidity and mortality. Mainous, A.G., Gill, J.M., Pearson, W.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. A family-based and case-control association study of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and dopamine transporter gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Holmes, J., Payton, A., Barrett, J.H., Hever, T., Fitzpatrick, H., Trumper, A.L., Harrington, R., McGuffin, P., Owen, M., Ollier, W., Worthington, J., Thapar, A. Mol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Clinically diagnosed presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type in the Northern Health Region: ascertainment, prevalence, incidence and survival. Newens, A.J., Forster, D.P., Kay, D.W., Kirkup, W., Bates, D., Edwardson, J. Psychological medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Urinary excretion of cortisol, norepinephrine, testosterone, and melatonin in panic disorder. Bandelow, B., Sengos, G., Wedekind, D., Huether, G., Pilz, J., Broocks, A., Hajak, G., Rüther, E. Pharmacopsychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Lithium-induced EEG changes in patients with affective disorders. Schulz, C., Mavrogiorgou, P., Schröter, A., Hegerl, U., Juckel, G. Neuropsychobiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Efficacy and safety of tianeptine in the treatment of depressive disorders in comparison with fluoxetine. Lôo, H., Saiz-Ruiz, J., Costa e Silva JACE, n.u.l.l., Ansseau, M., Herrington, R., Vaz-Serra, A., Dilling, H., de Risio, S. Journal of affective disorders. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Development of a screening questionnaire for tobacco/nicotine dependence according to ICD-10, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV. Kawakami, N., Takatsuka, N., Inaba, S., Shimizu, H. Addictive behaviors. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. The changing use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Edwards, C.J., Arden, N.K., Fisher, D., Saperia, J.C., Reading, I., Van Staa, T.P., Cooper, C. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Overmeyer, S., Bullmore, E.T., Suckling, J., Simmons, A., Williams, S.C., Santosh, P.J., Taylor, E. Psychological medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Craving and other characteristics of the comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Hertling, I., Ramskogler, K., Dvorak, A., Klingler, A., Saletu-Zyhlarz, G., Schoberberger, R., Walter, H., Kunze, M., Lesch, O.M. Eur. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Management of osteoporosis in women aged 50 and older with osteoporosis-related fractures in a managed care population. Gunter, M.J., Beaton, S.J., Brenneman, S.K., Chen, Y.T., Abbott, T.A., Gleeson, J.M. Disease management : DM. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Should caffeine abuse, dependence, or withdrawal be added to DSM-IV and ICD-10? Hughes, J.R., Oliveto, A.H., Helzer, J.E., Higgins, S.T., Bickel, W.K. The American journal of psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Fluoxetine in early poststroke depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Wiart, L., Petit, H., Joseph, P.A., Mazaux, J.M., Barat, M. Stroke (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Improved refill persistence with fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in a single inhaler compared with other controller therapies. Stoloff, S.W., Stempel, D.A., Meyer, J., Stanford, R.H., Carranza Rosenzweig, J.R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Low total serum cholesterol and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: is the association confined to elderly men? The Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Iribarren, C., Jacobs, D.R., Sadler, M., Claxton, A.J., Sidney, S. Stroke (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Eurich, D.T., Majumdar, S.R., McAlister, F.A., Tsuyuki, R.T., Johnson, J.A. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. HLA class I distribution in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Matsumoto, S., Sasaki, T., Imamura, A., Matsuo, K., Kayashima, T., Hashida, A., Ono, S., Tsujita, T., Matsumoto, S., Nakane, Y., Tokunaga, K., Okazaki, Y. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Association of GABA(A) receptors and alcohol dependence and the effects of genetic imprinting. Song, J., Koller, D.L., Foroud, T., Carr, K., Zhao, J., Rice, J., Nurnberger, J.I., Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., Smith, T.L., Schuckit, M.A., Edenberg, H.J. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Combination therapy with venlafaxine and carbamazepine in depressive patients not responding to venlafaxine: pharmacokinetic and clinical aspects. Ciusani, E., Zullino, D.F., Eap, C.B., Brawand-Amey, M., Brocard, M., Baumann, P. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. The classification of multiple somatoform symptoms. Rief, W., Heuser, J., Mayrhuber, E., Stelzer, I., Hiller, W., Fichter, M.M. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Quality improvement and tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a Cleveland update. Katzan, I.L., Hammer, M.D., Furlan, A.J., Hixson, E.D., Nadzam, D.M. Stroke (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Paroxetine and fluoxetine effects on mood and cognitive functions in depressed nondemented elderly patients. Cassano, G.B., Puca, F., Scapicchio, P.L., Trabucchi, M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Comparison of handheld computer-assisted and conventional paper chart documentation of medical records. A randomized, controlled trial. Stengel, D., Bauwens, K., Walter, M., Köpfer, T., Ekkernkamp, A. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Movahed, M.R., Hashemzadeh, M., Jamal, M.M. Chest (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Trends in utilization and outcomes of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. Nguyen, N.T., Zainabadi, K., Mavandadi, S., Paya, M., Stevens, C.M., Root, J., Wilson, S.E. Am. J. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Gender, injury status and acculturation differences in performance of screening instruments for alcohol problems among US Hispanic emergency department patients. Cherpitel, C.J. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1999) [Pubmed]
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