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Chemical Compound Review

NORGESTOMET     [(9S,11S,14S,17R)-17- ethanoyl-11,13...

Synonyms: AC1L1OFI, LS-97384, FT-0673096, SC 21009, Norprogesterone, ...
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Disease relevance of SC 21009

  • These data indicate that norgestomet implants increased rate of weight gain, reduced estrous activity, and reduced the occurrence of pregnancy in heifers on pasture [1].
  • Heifers with Norgestomet implants had higher body weight gains during the last 66 days (P < 0.05), and during the entire 122-day trial (P < 0.07) than heifers with placebo implants [2].
  • In MCF-7 breast cancer cell bioassays, norgestomet showed weak estrogenic activity, but only at concentrations greater than 1 micromolar [3].
  • Dystocia (P < 0.05), retention of fetal membranes (P < 0.01), and calf mortality (P < 0.01) were higher for the ovariectomized heifers with norgestomet implants than for the control heifers [4].

High impact information on SC 21009

  • In experiment 1, 16 cycling cows received a norgestomet ear implant at proestrus (Day 1) for 9 days to mimic the subluteal phase [5].
  • On Day 7 (Day 0 = behavioral estrus), implants containing norgestomet were inserted, and they remained in place for 10 days [6].
  • Controls were treated with 25 mg PGF2 alpha at the time norgestomet implants were removed from heifers of the other treatment groups [6].
  • At 17-25 days postpartum in experiments 1, 2, and 3, suckled beef cows were assigned at random to receive 6 mg norgestomet, via ear-implant, for 9 days (NOR) or to serve as controls (CON) [7].
  • At 19 to 23 days postpartum, cows were allotted to receive a norgestomet implant for 9 days (normal luteal phase) or to serve as untreated controls (short luteal phase) [8].

Biological context of SC 21009


Anatomical context of SC 21009

  • Follicles from norgestomet-treated cows were heavier (p less than 0.01) than follicles from control cows, mostly due to greater amounts of follicular fluid (p less than 0.01) [10].
  • In control cows (N = 5) induced to ovulate at Day 28 to 36 post partum by injection of 1000 i.u. hCG, corpora lutea had an average lifespan of only 8 days [14].
  • Cows in the normal cycle group (n = 5; control) and the normal cycle/endometrium group (n = 10) received norgestomet implants for 9 days beginning 21-23 days post partum and calves were weaned at implant insertion [15].
  • Short term treatment with progesterone 7 days before the end of a 17 day period of norgestomet treatment resulted in precise synchrony of ovulation without the ovulation of a persistent dominant ovarian follicle [16].
  • Most oocytes were degenerate in Norgestomet-implanted animals [17].

Associations of SC 21009 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of SC 21009

  • On Day 5 (Short d 5 and Norgestomet d 5) or Day 16 (Norgestomet d 16) following first postpartum estrus, each animal was injected (i.v.) with 100 IU oxytocin [23].
  • As expected, the proportion of anoestrous cows that formed a corpus luteum with a normal lifespan was greater (P < 0.01) in cows treated with norgestomet (Expt 1, 17 of 24; Expt 2, 18 of 22) than in control cows (Expt 1, 2 of 16; Expt 2, 3 of 18) [24].
  • Lengths of luteal phases (days; mean +/- SEM) were 8.4 +/- 0.7 (group 1, saline), 14.1 +/- 1.0 (group 2, rboIFN-alpha I1), 18.6 +/- 1.3 (group 3, norgestomet-saline) and 20.8 +/- 1.2 (group 4, norgestomet-rboIFN-alpha I1) [11].
  • On day 0, N and NFM cows received a 6 mg implant of norgestomet [25].
  • In summary, ergotamine lowered prolactin and elevated PGFM concentrations in follicular phase heifers and cows on norgestomet therapy [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SC 21009


  1. Norgestomet implants prevent pregnancy in beef heifers on pasture. Geary, T.W., Reeves, J.J., Schafer, D.W., Evans, R.R., Randel, R.D., Rutter, L.M., Sasser, R.G., Guardia, R., Alexander, B., Holcombe, D., Hanks, D.R., Faulkner, D.B. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Ovarian luteal activity and reproductive performance of heifers with norgestomet prototype implants. Hill, G.M., Lucas, D.M., Richardson, K.L., Baker, J.F., Kiser, T.E. Theriogenology (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Basis of norgestomet action as a progestogen in cattle. Moffatt, R.J., Zollers, W.G., Welshons, W.V., Kieborz, K.R., Garverick, H.A., Smith, M.F. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Norgestomet implants maintain pregnancy in ovariectomized heifers. Kesler, D.J. Theriogenology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of apoptosis in the atresia of nonovulatory dominant follicle during the bovine estrous cycle. Yang, M.Y., Rajamahendran, R. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Dosage of the synthetic progestin, norgestomet, influences luteinizing hormone pulse frequency and endogenous secretion of 17 beta-estradiol in heifers. Sanchez, T., Wehrman, M.E., Kojima, F.N., Cupp, A.S., Bergfeld, E.G., Peters, K.E., Mariscal, V., Kittok, R.J., Kinder, J.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Factors affecting fertility in the postpartum cow: role of the oocyte and follicle in conception rate. Breuel, K.F., Lewis, P.E., Schrick, F.N., Lishman, A.W., Inskeep, E.K., Butcher, R.L. Biol. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Pregnancy rates for embryos transferred from early postpartum beef cows into recipients with normal estrous cycles. Schrick, F.N., Inskeep, E.K., Butcher, R.L. Biol. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. In vitro prostaglandin production by bovine corpora lutea destined to be normal or short-lived. Hu, Y.F., Sanders, J.D., Kurz, S.G., Ottobre, J.S., Day, M.L. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Receptors for luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in largest follicles of postpartum beef cows. Inskeep, E.K., Braden, T.D., Lewis, P.E., Garcia-Winder, M., Niswender, G.D. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Luteal function after intrauterine infusion of recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1 into postpartum beef cows expected to have short or normal luteal phases. Garverick, H.A., Moser, M.T., Keisler, D.H., Hamilton, S.A., Roberts, R.M., Smith, M.F. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanisms regulating norgestomet inhibition of endometrial gland morphogenesis in the neonatal ovine uterus. Gray, C.A., Taylor, K.M., Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Actions of progesterone on uterine immunosuppression and endometrial gland development in the uterine gland knockout (UGKO) ewe. Padua, M.B., Tekin, S., Spencer, T.E., Hansen, P.J. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of progestagen treatment on concentrations of prostaglandins and oxytocin in plasma from the posterior vena cava of post-partum beef cows. Cooper, D.A., Carver, D.A., Villeneuve, P., Silvia, W.J., Inskeep, E.K. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Concentrations of progesterone and oxytocin receptors in endometrium of postpartum cows expected to have a short or normal oestrous cycle. Zollers, W.G., Garverick, H.A., Smith, M.F., Moffatt, R.J., Salfen, B.E., Youngquist, R.S. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of acute treatment with progesterone on the timing and synchrony of ovulation in Bos indicus heifers treated with a norgestomet implant for 17 days. Cavalieri, J., Kinder, J.E., Fitzpatrick, L.A. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Cumulus and oocyte maturation and in vitro and in vivo fertilization of oocytes in relation to follicular steroids, prolactin, and glycosaminoglycans throughout the estrous period in superovulated heifers with a normal LH surge, no detectable LH surge, and progestin inhibition of LH surge. Wise, T., Suss, U., Stranzinger, G., Wuthrich, K., Maurer, R.R. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. In vitro secretion of prostaglandins from endometrium of postpartum beef cows expected to have short or normal luteal phases. Zollers, W.G., Garverick, H.A., Youngquist, R.S., Ottobre, J.S., Silcox, R.W., Copelin, J.P., Smith, M.F. Biol. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of dominant follicle turnover during the oestrous cycle in cows. Savio, J.D., Thatcher, W.W., Badinga, L., de la Sota, R.L., Wolfenson, D. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Follicular dynamics and temporal relationships among body temperature, oestrus, the surge of luteinizing hormone and ovulation in Holstein heifers treated with norgestomet. Rajamahendran, R., Taylor, C. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Sexual behavior of Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) following estrous induction by Syncro-Mate B, with or without estrogen injection. Solano, J., Orihuela, A., Galina, C.S., Montiel, F. Physiol. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Fertility of norgestomet treated suckler cows. Drew, S.B., Wishart, D.F., Young, I.M. Vet. Rec. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Oxytocin-induced release of prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum beef cows: comparison of short versus normal luteal phases. Zollers, W.G., Garverick, H.A., Smith, M.F. Biol. Reprod. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Endocrine profiles and follicular development in early-weaned postpartum beef cows. Breuel, K.F., Lewis, P.E., Inskeep, E.K., Butcher, R.L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of prostaglandin F2 alpha in follicular development and subsequent luteal life span in early postpartum beef cows. Johnson, S.K., Del Vecchio, R.P., Townsend, E.C., Inskeep, E.K. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of an acute ergotamine challenge on reproductive hormones in follicular phase heifers and progestin-treated cows. Browning, R., Schrick, F.N., Thompson, F.N., Wakefield, T. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Synchronization of estrus in beef heifers with a norgestomet implant and prostaglandin F(2alpha). Heersche, G., Kiracofe, G.H., Debenedetti, R.C., Wen, S., McKee, R.M. Theriogenology (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Norgestomet implants, plasma progesterone concentrations and embryo transfer pregnancy rates in cattle. Smith, A.K., Broadbent, P.J., Dolman, D.F., Grimmer, S.P., Davies, D.A., Dobson, H. Vet. Rec. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinical use of Norgestomet ear implants or intravaginal pessaries for synchronization of estrus in anestrous dairy goats. Bretzlaff, K.N., Madrid, N. Theriogenology (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Norgestomet implants synchronize estrus and enhance fertility in beef heifers subsequent to a timed artificial insemination. Favero, R.J., Faulkner, D.B., Kesler, D.J. J. Anim. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
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