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MeSH Review

Extraembryonic Membranes

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Disease relevance of Extraembryonic Membranes


High impact information on Extraembryonic Membranes

  • We postulated that damage to the fetal membranes may release fetal fibronectin into the cervix and vagina, giving rise to a biochemical marker for preterm delivery [6].
  • Two types of tissues have been examined with respect to randomness of inactivation in 14-day mouse conceptuses: 1) fetal tissue, which undergoes random inactivation of either the maternal or paternal X; and 2) yolk sac endoderm tissue, an extraembryonic membrane, which normally undergoes nonrandom inactivation of the paternal X [7].
  • Secondly, peripheral estrogen infusions increased myometrial activity but did not produce preterm delivery or fetal membrane changes [8].
  • 4OHA also inhibited the androstenedione induced maternal endocrine and fetal membrane biochemical changes, and alteration of myometrial activity patterns [8].
  • Female fetuses that mature between males are androgenized by testosterone crossing fetal membranes, and their phenotypes as adults differ significantly from those of sisters that received less intrauterine exposure to exogenous testosterone [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Extraembryonic Membranes


Biological context of Extraembryonic Membranes


Anatomical context of Extraembryonic Membranes


Associations of Extraembryonic Membranes with chemical compounds

  • In human pregnancy we suggest that cortisol increases PGHS expression, activity, and PG output in human fetal membranes in a similar manner [25].
  • When maternal hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed by cholesterol feeding, newly synthesized cholesterol disappeared from the maternal blood yet there was essentially no change in the rate of appearance of newly synthesized sterol in the fetus, placenta, and fetal membranes [26].
  • Furthermore, the fetal membranes appear to be an important site for sterol synthesis in the fetal compartment [26].
  • The protein contents of both the extraembryonic membranes and the embryo were dependent on the glucose uptake [27].
  • Obligate genetic expression in tumor cells of a fetal membrane property mediating "folate" transport: biological significance and implications for improved therapy of human cancer [28].

Gene context of Extraembryonic Membranes


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Extraembryonic Membranes


  1. Production of premature delivery in pregnant rhesus monkeys by androstenedione infusion. Mecenas, C.A., Giussani, D.A., Owiny, J.R., Jenkins, S.L., Wu, W.X., Honnebier, B.O., Lockwood, C.J., Kong, L., Guller, S., Nathanielsz, P.W. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The human placenta and fetal membranes express the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1alpha (CRH-1alpha) and the CRH-C variant receptor. Karteris, E., Grammatopoulos, D., Dai, Y., Olah, K.B., Ghobara, T.B., Easton, A., Hillhouse, E.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Amniotic membrane production of prostaglandin F2 alpha is reduced in dysfunctional human labor: results of in vivo and in vitro studies. Reddi, K., Norman, R.J., Deppe, W.M., Machattie, C.T., Kemp, M., Joubert, S.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Localization of type II phospholipase A2 messenger RNA and immunoactivity in human placenta and fetal membranes. Aitken, M.A., Thomas, T., Brennecke, S.P., Scott, K.F., Rice, G.E. Placenta (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Prostaglandin E production by the fetal membranes in unexplained preterm labour and preterm labour associated with chorioamnionitis. López Bernal, A., Hansell, D.J., Khong, T.Y., Keeling, J.W., Turnbull, A.C. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Fetal fibronectin in cervical and vaginal secretions as a predictor of preterm delivery. Lockwood, C.J., Senyei, A.E., Dische, M.R., Casal, D., Shah, K.D., Thung, S.N., Jones, L., Deligdisch, L., Garite, T.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Differences in the DNA of the inactive X chromosomes of fetal and extraembryonic tissues of mice. Kratzer, P.G., Chapman, V.M., Lambert, H., Evans, R.E., Liskay, R.M. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Local paracrine effects of estradiol are central to parturition in the rhesus monkey. Nathanielsz, P.W., Jenkins, S.L., Tame, J.D., Winter, J.A., Guller, S., Giussani, D.A. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Hormonally mediated inheritance of acquired characteristics in Mongolian gerbils. Clark, M.M., Karpiuk, P., Galef, B.G. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Support for an infection-induced apoptotic pathway in human fetal membranes. Fortunato, S.J., Menon, R., Lombardi, S.J. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Determination of renin, angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II levels in human placenta, chorion and amnion from women with pregnancy induced hypertension. Kalenga, M.K., Thomas, K., de Gasparo, M., De Hertogh, R. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. The use of fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibodies, cell culture and transmission electron microscopy to detect Chlamydia psittaci and associated lesions in experimentally infected mice. Biolatti, B., Dagnall, G.J., Bollo, E., Cornaglia, E., Wilsmore, A.J., Donn, A. J. Comp. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of urinary trypsin inhibitor in patients at risk for premature labor with a bulging fetal membrane. Matsuda, Y., Yunohara, N. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical and bacteriological aspects on the use of oxytetracycline and flunixin in primiparous cows with induced retained placenta and post-partal endometritis. Königsson, K., Gustafsson, H., Gunnarsson, A., Kindahl, H. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. In search of non-random X inactivation: studies of fetal membranes heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Migeon, B.R., Do, T.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Late gestation increase in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression in human fetal membranes: a novel intrauterine source of cortisol. Alfaidy, N., Li, W., MacIntosh, T., Yang, K., Challis, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Initiation of human parturition. VI. Identification and quantification of progesterone metabolites produced by the components of human fetal membranes. Milewich, L., Gant, N.F., Schwarz, B.E., Prough, R.A., Chen, G.T., Athey, B., Macdonald, P.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Proliferin transport and binding in the mouse fetus. Jackson, D., Linzer, D.I. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase types-1 and -2 in human fetal membranes throughout pregnancy. Slater, D., Dennes, W., Sawdy, R., Allport, V., Bennett, P. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Abundant expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in human amnion and its association with labor. Ferguson, J.E., Gorman, J.V., Bruns, D.E., Weir, E.C., Burtis, W.J., Martin, T.J., Bruns, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Retinol-binding protein and transthyretin mRNA levels in visceral yolk sac and liver during fetal development in the rat. Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J., Goodman, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Functionally significant SNP MMP8 promoter haplotypes and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Wang, H., Parry, S., Macones, G., Sammel, M.D., Ferrand, P.E., Kuivaniemi, H., Tromp, G., Halder, I., Shriver, M.D., Romero, R., Strauss, J.F. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Diacylglycerol metabolism and arachidonic acid release in human fetal membranes and decidua vera. Okazaki, T., Sagawa, N., Okita, J.R., Bleasdale, J.E., MacDonald, P.C., Johnston, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel spliced variant of the type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor with a deletion in the seventh transmembrane domain present in the human pregnant term myometrium and fetal membranes. Grammatopoulos, D.K., Dai, Y., Randeva, H.S., Levine, M.A., Karteris, E., Easton, A.J., Hillhouse, E.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Endocrine and paracrine regulation of birth at term and preterm. Challis JRG, n.u.l.l., Matthews, S.G., Gibb, W., Lye, S.J. Endocr. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Sterol synthesis and low density lipoprotein clearance in vivo in the pregnant rat, placenta, and fetus. Sources for tissue cholesterol during fetal development. Belknap, W.M., Dietschy, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. In vitro analysis of glucose metabolism and embryonic growth in postimplantation rat embryos. Ellington, S.K. Development (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Obligate genetic expression in tumor cells of a fetal membrane property mediating "folate" transport: biological significance and implications for improved therapy of human cancer. Sirotnak, F.M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Disruption of the developmentally regulated Rev3l gene causes embryonic lethality. Wittschieben, J., Shivji, M.K., Lalani, E., Jacobs, M.A., Marini, F., Gearhart, P.J., Rosewell, I., Stamp, G., Wood, R.D. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Haploid loss of the tumor suppressor Smad4/Dpc4 initiates gastric polyposis and cancer in mice. Xu, X., Brodie, S.G., Yang, X., Im, Y.H., Parks, W.T., Chen, L., Zhou, Y.X., Weinstein, M., Kim, S.J., Deng, C.X. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin induce secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) without change in tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 by cultured cells from human placenta and fetal membranes. Li, W., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostanoid receptors by human myometrium. Erkinheimo, T.L., Saukkonen, K., Narko, K., Jalkanen, J., Ylikorkala, O., Ristimäki, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in human placenta and fetal membranes. Sun, K., Yang, K., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression and localization of human oxytocin receptor mRNA and its protein in chorion and decidua during parturition. Takemura, M., Kimura, T., Nomura, S., Makino, Y., Inoue, T., Kikuchi, T., Kubota, Y., Tokugawa, Y., Nobunaga, T., Kamiura, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in human placenta and fetal membranes at term labor. Li, W., Alfaidy, N., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone receptors and regulation of the cyclooxygenase-1 gene by exogenous hCG in human fetal membranes. Toth, P., Li, X., Lei, Z.M., Rao, C.V. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Corticotrophin-releasing factor immunostaining is present in placenta and fetal membranes from the first trimester onwards and is not affected by labour or administration of mifepristone. Cooper, E.S., Brooks, A.N., Miller, M.R., Greer, I.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1994) [Pubmed]
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