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MeSH Review

Pregnancy Rate

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Disease relevance of Pregnancy Rate


Psychiatry related information on Pregnancy Rate

  • Research further suggests that psychosocial factors, like ineffective coping strategies, anxiety and/or depression are associated with a lower pregnancy rate following IVF-procedures [6].

High impact information on Pregnancy Rate

  • The pregnancy rate among women receiving isotretinoin therapy was substantially lower than that in the general population and was compatible with the characteristics and behavior of the enrolled women [7].
  • For example, manifestations of ovarian hypofunction (primary amenorrhea, late menarche, anovulation, low pregnancy rate, and early menopause) in IDDM can be understood if it is accepted that insulin is necessary for the ovary to reach its full steroidogenic potential [8].
  • FINDINGS: Of 4071 women with known outcome, pregnancy rates were 1.5% (21/1359) in those given mifepristone, 1.5% (20/1356) in those assigned single-dose levonorgestrel, and 1.8% (24/1356) in women assigned two-dose levonorgestrel [9].
  • The pregnancy rate per cycle was also higher after IVF (72 [33%] vs 53 [26%]; 1.17 [0.97-1.35]) [10].
  • RESULTS: Severely diabetic TNF-alpha(+/+) female mice had a much greater decrease in pregnancy rate but a lower incidence of malformed fetuses in litters than severely diabetic TNF-alpha(-/-) female mice [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pregnancy Rate


Biological context of Pregnancy Rate

  • In the HH subjects the ovulatory (91%) and pregnancy rates (31%) were high; however, while the lower GnRH dose elicited a normal endocrine pattern, the 5-micrograms dose induced excessive folliculogenesis and high estradiol levels and was associated with most of the multiple pregnancies of this study (three of four) [17].
  • No alterations were noted in the transducer-bearing animals in the numbers of corpora lutea, uterine implants, or viable conceptuses, or in fertility, pregnancy rates, rates of ovum transport, or peripheral plasma levels of progesterone (P) or estradiol (E2) [18].
  • Exposure of murine blastocysts to LIF at the time of transcervical transfer resulted in pronounced positive effects on implantation and pregnancy rates without affecting fetal development [19].
  • Reproductive performance was assessed after exposure to 75 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, a dose which destroys approximately 50% of PMF reserve, by evaluation of ovulation, mating and pregnancy rates [20].
  • Those patients receiving luteal phase support with progesterone beginning on day 6 after retrieval had a significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate per transfer compared with those beginning support on day 3 after retrieval (44.8% vs. 61.0%, respectively) [21].

Anatomical context of Pregnancy Rate


Associations of Pregnancy Rate with chemical compounds

  • Higher weight and insulin were associated with lower ovulatory and pregnancy rates; higher LH and testosterone were associated with lower ovulatory rates only [27].
  • However, the current paradigmatic hyperstimulation came under scrutiny after the introduction of the GnRH antagonists, which allow milder and more convenient approaches with acceptable cancellation and pregnancy rates but lower requirements for FSH [28].
  • Gonadotropic stimulation 12 h after PGF2alpha typically resulted in gestational failure; a marginal improvement in the pregnancy rate was attained by progesterone supplementation [29].
  • The aggregate of pregnancy rates in clomifene trials was 7% per cycle, and 6% in gonadotrophin trials [30].
  • Progesterone treatment decreased (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates [31].

Gene context of Pregnancy Rate

  • VEGF immunoneutralization markedly suppressed plasma progesterone secretion during treatment, but pregnancy rate was not significantly reduced [32].
  • Embryos exposed to GLUT8 antisense experienced higher rates of resorptions and lower normal pregnancy rates compared to embryos cultured in GLUT8 sense [33].
  • Here, we hypothesize that the high concentrations of IGF-I result in miscarriage, represented by decreased normal pregnancy rates and increased resorption rates in a mouse model [34].
  • Body and gonadal fat pad (GFP) weights, along with plasma leptin concentrations, estrous cyclicity, pregnancy rate and litter characteristics, were recorded for each female [35].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Serum E(2) and P levels at hCG administration, number of oocytes, fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, and pregnancy rate, and expression of VEGF and IL-6 genes [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pregnancy Rate

  • Cryopreservation of embryos and pregnancy rates after IVF [37].
  • In conclusion, application of the described mild ovarian stimulation protocol resulted in pregnancy rates per started IVF cycle similar to those observed after profound stimulation with GnRH agonist cotreatment despite shorter stimulation and a 27% reduction in exogenous FSH [38].
  • The pregnancy rates following transfer of embryos cultured in 10 microM EDTA minus or plus amino acids or in 100 microM EDTA plus amino acids (38%, 43%, and 50%, respectively) were not significantly different from those of the in vivo control group (43%) [39].
  • Randomised clinical trials and controlled cohort observations indicate that for the first 3 years, when pregnancy rates are at or almost zero, no other contraceptive system is more effective, although etonogestrel implants provide equal effectiveness [40].
  • However, ongoing pregnancy rates after frozen-thawed embryo transfers were significantly higher when originating from GnRHa + HMG treatments (14.3 and 14.8%, respectively for long and short protocols) than when originating from CC + HMG treatment (5.6%) [41].


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  2. Pregnancy and birth rates among HIV-infected women in the United States: the confounding effects of illicit drug use. Forsyth, B.W., Davis, J.A., Freudigman, K.A., Katz, K.H., Zelterman, D. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Factors influencing pregnancy rates with a combined clomiphene citrate/gonadotropin protocol for non-assisted reproductive technology fertility treatment. Houmard, B.S., Juang, M.P., Soules, M.R., Fujimoto, V.Y. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Subtle tubal abnormalities adversely affect gamete intrafallopian transfer outcome in women with endometriosis. Fakih, H., Marshall, J. Fertil. Steril. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Reanastomosis of the previously ligated fallopian tube. Vammen, A.N., Gideon, W.P., Elkins, J.P. Fertil. Steril. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychological aspects of in vitro fertilization: a review. Eugster, A., Vingerhoets, A.J. Social science & medicine (1982) (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A pregnancy-prevention program in women of childbearing age receiving isotretinoin. Mitchell, A.A., Van Bennekom, C.M., Louik, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The gonadotropic function of insulin. Poretsky, L., Kalin, M.F. Endocr. Rev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Low dose mifepristone and two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a WHO multicentre randomised trial. von Hertzen, H., Piaggio, G., Ding, J., Chen, J., Song, S., Bártfai, G., Ng, E., Gemzell-Danielsson, K., Oyunbileg, A., Wu, S., Cheng, W., Lüdicke, F., Pretnar-Darovec, A., Kirkman, R., Mittal, S., Khomassuridze, A., Apter, D., Peregoudov, A. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Conventional in-vitro fertilisation versus intracytoplasmic sperm injection for the treatment of non-male-factor infertility: a randomised controlled trial. Bhattacharya, S., Hamilton, M.P., Shaaban, M., Khalaf, Y., Seddler, M., Ghobara, T., Braude, P., Kennedy, R., Rutherford, A., Hartshorne, G., Templeton, A. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. TNF-alpha acts to prevent occurrence of malformed fetuses in diabetic mice. Torchinsky, A., Gongadze, M., Orenstein, H., Savion, S., Fein, A., Toder, V. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. An aggressive philosophy in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles increases pregnancy rates. Gratton, R.J., Nisker, J.A., Daniel, S., Toth, S., Gunter, J., Kaplan, B.R., Tummon, I.S., Yuzpe, A.A. Hum. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Clomiphene citrate ovulation induction in combination with a timed intrauterine insemination: the value of urinary luteinizing hormone versus human chorionic gonadotropin timing. Deaton, J.L., Clark, R.R., Pittaway, D.E., Herbst, P., Bauguess, P. Fertil. Steril. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of the relationship between semen parameters, pregnancy rate of wives of infertile men with varicocele, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone test before and after varicocelectomy. Segenreich, E., Israilov, S., Shmuele, J., Niv, E., Baniel, J., Livne, P. Urology (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Inherent variability among measures of fertility of rats and its implications in the design of mating trials. Berndtson, W.E., Judd, J.E., Castro, A.C. J. Androl. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Kocak, M., Caliskan, E., Simsir, C., Haberal, A. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Endocrine response determines the clinical outcome of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone ovulation induction in different ovulatory disorders. Filicori, M., Flamigni, C., Meriggiola, M.C., Ferrari, P., Michelacci, L., Campaniello, E., Valdiserri, A., Cognigni, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Patterns of periovulatory oviductal motility and progesterone in the unanesthetized rabbit. Fredericks, C.M., Anderson, W.R., Smith, C.E., Mathur, R.S. Biol. Reprod. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo effect of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and an anti-LIF polyclonal antibody on murine embryo and fetal development following exposure at the time of transcervical blastocyst transfer. Mitchell, M.H., Swanson, R.J., Oehninger, S. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Subclinical depletion of primordial follicular reserve in mice treated with cyclophosphamide: clinical importance and proposed accurate investigative tool. Meirow, D., Lewis, H., Nugent, D., Epstein, M. Hum. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Delaying the initiation of progesterone supplementation results in decreased pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization: a randomized, prospective study. Williams, S.C., Oehninger, S., Gibbons, W.E., Van Cleave, W.C., Muasher, S.J. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Decreased pregnancy rate after in-vitro fertilization in HIV-infected women receiving HAART. Coll, O., Suy, A., Figueras, F., Vernaeve, V., Martínez, E., Mataró, D., Durban, M., Lonca, M., Vidal, R., Gatell, J.M. AIDS (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) pregnancy outcome is enhanced by shorter intervals from semen collection to sperm wash, from sperm wash to IUI time, and from semen collection to IUI time. Yavas, Y., Selub, M.R. Fertil. Steril. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Combined treatment by pentoxifylline and tocopherol for recipient women with a thin endometrium enrolled in an oocyte donation programme. Lédée-Bataille, N., Olivennes, F., Lefaix, J.L., Chaouat, G., Frydman, R., Delanian, S. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Strategies in frozen donor semen procreation. Le Lannou, D., Gastard, E., Guivarch, A., Laurent, M.C., Poulain, P. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Adjuvant L-arginine treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a double-blind, randomized study. Battaglia, C., Regnani, G., Marsella, T., Facchinetti, F., Volpe, A., Venturoli, S., Flamigni, C. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Treatment of anovulation with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone: prognostic factors and clinical results in 600 cycles. Filicori, M., Flamigni, C., Dellai, P., Cognigni, G., Michelacci, L., Arnone, R., Sambataro, M., Falbo, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Contemporary pharmacological manipulation in assisted reproduction. Huirne, J.A., Lambalk, C.B., van Loenen, A.C., Schats, R., Hompes, P.G., Fauser, B.C., Macklon, N.S. Drugs (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Luteal dysfunction in ewes induced to ovulate early in the follicular phase. Murdoch, W.J., Van Kirk, E.A. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Pharmacological interventions for the induction of ovulation. Collins, J.A., Hughes, E.G. Drugs (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of progesterone, mifepristone, and estrogen treatment during early pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity in Swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Angiogenesis in the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the marmoset and the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor immunoneutralization on establishment of pregnancy. Rowe, A.J., Morris, K.D., Bicknell, R., Fraser, H.M. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Glucose transporter 8 expression and translocation are critical for murine blastocyst survival. Pinto, A.B., Carayannopoulos, M.O., Hoehn, A., Dowd, L., Moley, K.H. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Preimplantation exposure to high insulin-like growth factor I concentrations results in increased resorption rates in vivo. Pinto, A.B., Schlein, A.L., Moley, K.H. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Leptin modulates fertility under the influence of elevated growth hormone as modeled in oMt1a-oGH transgenic mice. Thomas, A.D., Murray, J.D., Oberbauer, A.M. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Influence of severe endometriosis on gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in granulosa cells from patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Yamashita, Y., Ueda, M., Takehara, M., Yamashita, H., Suzuki, Y., Hung, Y.C., Terai, Y., Ueki, M. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Cryopreservation of embryos and pregnancy rates after IVF. Lieberman, B.A., Troup, S.A., Matson, P.L. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. A randomized comparison of two ovarian stimulation protocols with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist cotreatment for in vitro fertilization commencing recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on cycle day 2 or 5 with the standard long GnRH agonist protocol. Hohmann, F.P., Macklon, N.S., Fauser, B.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Development potential of mouse embryos conceived in vitro and cultured in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with or without amino acids or serum. Mehta, T.S., Kiessling, A.A. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Risks and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants. Sivin, I. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Pregnancy rates after transfer of embryos obtained from different stimulation protocols and frozen at either pronucleate or multicellular stages. Demoulin, A., Jouan, C., Gerday, C., Dubois, M. Hum. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
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