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Chemical Compound Review

GPGRAF     (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[2- [[(2S)-1-(2...

Synonyms: AC1L9TBZ, CTK0F5406, 131473-70-6, V3 loop peptide, GPGRAF; V3 loop peptide
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Disease relevance of GPGRAF

  • All sera obtained after boosting contained HIV-1 binding/fusion-inhibition antibodies, and a significant portion of their activity was blocked by the V3 loop peptide, a result consistent with the presence of antibodies against the region of the V3 loop that participates in fusion [1].
  • Crystal structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing antibody, 50.1, in complex with its V3 loop peptide antigen [2].
  • An NMR approach for structure determination of short peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage virions is demonstrated using the hexapeptide GPGRAF that constitutes the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV-1 [3].
  • V3 loop peptide sequences from several HIV-1 strains were covalently linked to purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [4].
  • We have previously shown that a V3-loop peptide from HIV-1 envelope conjugated to heat-inactivated Brucella abortus (Ba) (V3-Ba) is capable of inducing antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and cytotoxic T cells (CTL) that kill HIV-1-infected targets, even in mice that lack CD4(+) T cells [5].

High impact information on GPGRAF

  • Using a YBF30 V3 loop peptide enzyme immunoassay, we screened 700 HIV-1-positive sera collected in Cameroon; three reacted strongly with the YBF30 peptides and one was confirmed as being related to YBF30 by genetic analysis of a pol fragment [6].
  • Sera from two rabbits immunized with a peptide containing only the GPGRAF residues neutralized divergent isolates, including IIIB and MN [7].
  • Recently, we reported that a synthetic multibranched peptide (SPC3) containing eight V3-loop consensus motifs (GPGRAF) inhibited HIV-1 infection in both CD4+ and CD4- susceptible cells [8].
  • We also demonstrate that [3H]suramin binds to multibranched synthetic GPGRAF peptides that block HIV-1 infection in HT-29 cells [9].
  • Construction of an HIV-1 peptide vaccine containing a multideterminant helper peptide linked to a V3 loop peptide 18 inducing strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice of multiple MHC haplotypes after two immunizations [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of GPGRAF


Biological context of GPGRAF

  • Characterization of these sera revealed that the cross-neutralizing antibodies bound the amino acid sequence GlyProGlyArgAlaPhe (GPGRAF) that is present in both isolates [7].
  • This "universal" T cell epitope, which was recognized in donors of many different HLA-DR and -DQ haplotypes, was then used to construct a chimeric peptide containing 19-33 and the third V region loop structure (V3 loop) of HIV-1 envelope gp 120, in an attempt to augment the immune response to the V3 loop peptide [12].
  • A structure-activity relationship study using V3 SPC analogs showed that the most efficient inhibitor of cell fusion was an eight-branched SPC with the hexapeptide motif GPGRAF (i.e., [GPGRAF]8-SPC) [13].
  • N-terminal acetylation or incorporation of D-amino acids in the GPGRAF sequence of this SPC resulted in significant loss of activity [13].
  • In the present study, we have characterized the cellular binding sites for the V3 peptide SPC3, which possesses eight V3 consensus motifs GPGRAF radially branched on a neutral polyLys core matrix [14].

Anatomical context of GPGRAF


Associations of GPGRAF with other chemical compounds

  • In this study mass spectrometry (MS) combined with both liquid (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been employed to identify the products formed following ONOO- treatment of three peptides at physiological pH: leucine-enkephalin (YGGFL), V3 loop (GPGRAF), and LVV-hemorphin7 (LVVYPWTQRF) [20].

Gene context of GPGRAF

  • In inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the mucin-antibody chimeric peptide could inhibit 71 to 84% of binding to a V3 loop peptide by monoclonal antibodies known to be specific for GPGR in the V3 loop [21].
  • In this study we coupled a 14-mer V3 loop peptide (V3), which is homologous to 9 of 11 amino acids from the V3 loop of HIV-1 MN, and gp120 from HIV-1 SF2 to B. abortus [gp120(SF2)-B. abortus] [22].
  • In addition to being highly strain specific, the chimpanzee antiserum did not bind to the V3 loop peptide of HIV-1(DH12), nor did it block the interaction of gp120 with the CD4 receptor [23].
  • These antibodies in sera could bind to both neutralizing epitopes on gp41 peptide, V3 loop peptide and recombinant soluble gp41 (aa539-684) in ELISA assay (antisera dilution: 1:1,600-25,600), while normal sera did not [24].
  • Following immunization of healthy adult volunteers with baculovirus-derived HIV-1 gp160 vaccine (rgp160), we measured lymphocyte proliferation to rgp160, the V3 loop peptide of gp160, control proteins, and phytohaemagglutinin [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPGRAF


  1. V3-specific neutralizing antibodies in sera from HIV-1 gp160-immunized volunteers block virus fusion and act synergistically with human monoclonal antibody to the conformation-dependent CD4 binding site of gp120. NIH-NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. Montefiori, D.C., Graham, B.S., Zhou, J., Zhou, J., Bucco, R.A., Schwartz, D.H., Cavacini, L.A., Posner, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Crystal structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing antibody, 50.1, in complex with its V3 loop peptide antigen. Rini, J.M., Stanfield, R.L., Stura, E.A., Salinas, P.A., Profy, A.T., Wilson, I.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. NMR structure of the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV-1 displayed in filamentous bacteriophage coat protein. Jelinek, R., Terry, T.D., Gesell, J.J., Malik, P., Perham, R.N., Opella, S.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunologic responses of HIV-1-infected study subjects to immunization with a mixture of peptide protein derivative-V3 loop peptide conjugates. Rubinstein, A., Mizrachi, Y., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., Lenz, J., Liu, G.Q., Rubinstein, Y., Goldstein, H., Yust, I., Burke, M., Vardinon, N., Spirer, Z., Cryz, S.J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Mucosal immunity in mice immunized with HIV-1 peptide conjugated to Brucella abortus. Golding, B., Eller, N., Levy, L., Beining, P., Inman, J., Matthews, N., Scott, D.E., Golding, H. Vaccine (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 distinct from group M and group O. Simon, F., Mauclère, P., Roques, P., Loussert-Ajaka, I., Müller-Trutwin, M.C., Saragosti, S., Georges-Courbot, M.C., Barré-Sinoussi, F., Brun-Vézinet, F. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited by the hypervariable neutralizing determinant of HIV-1. Javaherian, K., Langlois, A.J., LaRosa, G.J., Profy, A.T., Bolognesi, D.P., Herlihy, W.C., Putney, S.D., Matthews, T.J. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. SPC3, a synthetic peptide derived from the V3 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120, inhibits HIV-1 entry into CD4+ and CD4- cells by two distinct mechanisms. Yahi, N., Fantini, J., Baghdiguian, S., Mabrouk, K., Tamalet, C., Rochat, H., Van Rietschoten, J., Sabatier, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Suramin inhibits binding of the V3 region of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to galactosylceramide, the receptor for HIV-1 gp120 on human colon epithelial cells. Yahi, N., Sabatier, J.M., Nickel, P., Mabrouk, K., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Fantini, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Construction of an HIV-1 peptide vaccine containing a multideterminant helper peptide linked to a V3 loop peptide 18 inducing strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice of multiple MHC haplotypes after two immunizations. Ahlers, J.D., Pendleton, C.D., Dunlop, N., Minassian, A., Nara, P.L., Berzofsky, J.A. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparing modified and plain peptide linked enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and type-2 (HIV-2) antibodies. Manocha, M., Chitralekha, K.T., Thakar, M., Shashikiran, D., Paranjape, R.S., Rao, D.N. Immunol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. A universal T cell epitope-containing peptide from hepatitis B surface antigen can enhance antibody specific for HIV gp120. Greenstein, J.L., Schad, V.C., Goodwin, W.H., Brauer, A.B., Bollinger, B.K., Chin, R.D., Kuo, M.C. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Multibranched V3 peptides inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection in human lymphocytes and macrophages. Yahi, N., Fantini, J., Mabrouk, K., Tamalet, C., de Micco, P., van Rietschoten, J., Rochat, H., Sabatier, J.M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. SPC3, a V3 loop-derived synthetic peptide inhibitor of HIV-1 infection, binds to cell surface glycosphingolipids. Delézay, O., Hammache, D., Fantini, J., Yahi, N. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and syncytium formation in human cells by V3 loop synthetic peptides from gp120. Nehete, P.N., Arlinghaus, R.B., Sastry, K.J. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Correlation of antiviral activity with beta-turn types for V3 synthetic multibranched peptides from HIV-1 gp120. Mabrouk, K., Van Rietschoten, J., Rochat, H., Loret, E.P. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular analysis of presentation by HLA-A2.1 of a promiscuously binding V3 loop peptide from the HIV-envelope protein to human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Alexander-Miller, M.A., Parker, K.C., Tsukui, T., Pendleton, C.D., Coligan, J.E., Berzofsky, J.A. Int. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Lymphocyte proliferative responses following immunization with human immunodeficiency virus recombinant GP160. The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. Gorse, G.J., Belshe, R.B., Newman, F.K., Frey, S.E. Vaccine (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression and immunogenicity of the V3 loop from the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium upon genetic coupling to two Escherichia coli carrier proteins. Charbit, A., Martineau, P., Ronco, J., Leclerc, C., Lo-Man, R., Michel, V., O'Callaghan, D., Hofnung, M. Vaccine (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peptides: characterization of the products by electrospray and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Yi, D., Smythe, G.A., Blount, B.C., Duncan, M.W. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Proline-rich tandem repeats of antibody complementarity-determining regions bind and neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles. Fontenot, J.D., Zacharopoulos, V.R., Phillips, D.M. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Brucella abortus conjugated with a gp120 or V3 loop peptide derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 induces neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies, and the V3-B. abortus conjugate is effective even after CD4+ T-cell depletion. Golding, B., Inman, J., Highet, P., Blackburn, R., Manischewitz, J., Blyveis, N., Angus, R.D., Golding, H. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of gp120 regions targeted by a highly potent neutralizing antiserum elicited in a chimpanzee inoculated with a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate. Cho, M.W., Lee, M.K., Chen, C.H., Matthews, T., Martin, M.A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Recombinant multi-epitope vaccine induce predefined epitope-specific antibodies against HIV-1. Li, H., Liu, Z.Q., Ding, J., Chen, Y.H. Immunol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Cross-neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1ANT70 and HIV-1IIIB in sera of African and Belgian HIV-1-infected individuals. Nkengasong, J.N., Peeters, M., Ndumbe, P., Janssens, W., Willems, B., Fransen, K., Ngolle, M., Piot, P., van der Groen, G. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of correlation between V3-loop peptide enzyme immunoassay serologic subtyping and genetic sequencing. Nkengasong, J.N., Willems, B., Janssens, W., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Heyndrickx, L., Barin, F., Ondoa, P., Fransen, K., Goudsmit, J., van der Groen, G. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Antibodies to V3 loop peptides derived from chimpanzee lentiviruses and the divergent HIV-1ANT-70 isolate in human sera from different geographic regions. Peeters, M., Nkengasong, J., Willems, B., Karita, E., Delaporte, E., Van den Haesevelde, M., Piot, P., van der Groen, G. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among HIV-seropositive patients in the interior of Côte d'Ivoire. Nkengasong, J.N., Luo, C.C., Abouya, L., Pieniazek, D., Maurice, C., Sassan-Morokro, M., Ellenberger, D., Hu, D.J., Pau, C.P., Dobbs, T., Respess, R., Coulibaly, D., Coulibaly, I.M., Wiktor, S.Z., Greenberg, A.E., Rayfield, M. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression and immunogenicity of V3 loop epitopes of HIV-1, isolates SC and WMJ2, inserted in Salmonella flagellin. Cattozzo, E.M., Stocker, B.A., Radaelli, A., De Giuli Morghen, C., Tognon, M. J. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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