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pol  -  pol

Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus

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Disease relevance of pol

  • Replication competent chimeric viruses that express the gag and pol proteins of SIVmac and the env proteins of HIV-1 were made [1].
  • Despite the large diversity of pol sequences in resting CD4+ T cells, the residual viremia was dominated by a homogeneous population of viruses with identical pol sequences [2].
  • To analyze superinfection in an HIV-1-infected patient showing high-risk practices, viral quasispecies were analyzed in pol and env genes in several plasma samples [3].
  • In many retroviruses the 5' end of the pol gene codes for a protease vital for the processing of the gag polyprotein into the separate core proteins [4].
  • Partial sequencing of HIV pol revealed no new drug resistance mutations or discernible evolution, providing evidence for viral latency rather than drug failure [5].

Psychiatry related information on pol

  • To search for distinct HIV-1 sequences associated with the development of dementia, brain-derived tat, env, and pol sequences were examined from AIDS patients defined pre-mortem as demented (HIV-D)[n=5] or non-demented (HIV-ND)[n=5] [6].

High impact information on pol


Chemical compound and disease context of pol

  • Our data show that in the co-infected patients already presenting well-defined mutations associated with zidovudine resistance in HIV-1, no mutations were observed in a part of the pol gene coding for the RT activity of HTLV-I [11].
  • Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assessed by NASBA (nucleic acid sequence-based amplifications) (Organon Teknika, Boxtel, The Netherlands) with a detection limit of 80 copies/ml, whereas resistance was assessed by direct sequencing of the RT pol gene in patients with detectable viraemia, and by Antivirogram (Virco) in non-responder patients [12].
  • Mutations in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in infected patients receiving didanosine and hydroxyurea combination therapy [13].
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene mutations which cause decreased susceptibility to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine [14].
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of the selective pressure of the PI Indinavir in the protease region of the pol gene of HIV-1 [15].

Biological context of pol


Anatomical context of pol


Associations of pol with chemical compounds

  • A correlation between zidovudine-associated pol gene mutations and SI phenotype was detected at the 6-month time point [24].
  • Amino-terminal sequence analysis confirmed that the viral enzyme exported from yeast was correctly processed from its precursor by cleavage of the predicted Ala-Pro peptide bond located at the NH2 terminus of the protease in the pol open reading frame [25].
  • Dideoxynucleotides and D4T-TP were utilized by pol gamma in vitro as efficiently as natural deoxynucleotides, whereas AZT-TP, 3TC-TP, and CBV-TP were only moderate inhibitors of DNA chain elongation [26].
  • No anti-HIV activity could be detected with similarly targeted liposome-encapsulated sense env RNA or with pol RNA synthesized in either the sense or antisense orientations, or with env region antisense RNA free in solution, or encapsulated in liposomes in the absence of the targeting antibody [27].
  • One point mutation (A-->G) at site 2082 of the pol gene that resulted in one amino acid change at site 84 of the protease from isoleucine to valine (I-84-->V) could be detected in the resistant variant [28].

Other interactions of pol

  • In particular, most of pol and tat/vpu, as well as the region encoding intracellular domain of gp41, did not cluster with any of the previously characterized HIV-1 subtypes [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pol

  • HIV infection was shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of proviral sequences (gag and pol genes), by p24 antigen synthesis, and by cocultivation assay with MT2 cells [30].
  • Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region: outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals [31].
  • We developed a stepwise RNA pol II walking approach and used Western blotting to determine the role of TFIIH and P-TEFb in HIV-1 transcription elongation [32].
  • 14 synthetic peptides, 7-18 amino acids in length, containing putative protease cleavage sites of the viral polyprotein gag and pol precursors, have been analyzed with the partially purified protease by the use of high performance liquid chromatography [33].
  • After elution and RNA extraction, nested RT-PCR was used to amplify the protease and RT regions of the pol gene [34].


  1. Infection of cynomolgus monkeys with a chimeric HIV-1/SIVmac virus that expresses the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Li, J., Lord, C.I., Haseltine, W., Letvin, N.L., Sodroski, J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Residual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia in some patients on antiretroviral therapy is dominated by a small number of invariant clones rarely found in circulating CD4+ T cells. Bailey, J.R., Sedaghat, A.R., Kieffer, T., Brennan, T., Lee, P.K., Wind-Rotolo, M., Haggerty, C.M., Kamireddi, A.R., Liu, Y., Lee, J., Persaud, D., Gallant, J.E., Cofrancesco, J., Quinn, T.C., Wilke, C.O., Ray, S.C., Siliciano, J.D., Nettles, R.E., Siliciano, R.F. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A dual superinfection and recombination within HIV-1 subtype B 12 years after primoinfection. Pernas, M., Casado, C., Fuentes, R., Pérez-Elías, M.J., López-Galíndez, C. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A structural model for the retroviral proteases. Pearl, L.H., Taylor, W.R. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Recovery of replication-competent HIV despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia. Wong, J.K., Hezareh, M., Günthard, H.F., Havlir, D.V., Ignacio, C.C., Spina, C.A., Richman, D.D. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain-derived HIV-1 tat sequences from AIDS patients with dementia show increased molecular heterogeneity. Bratanich, A.C., Liu, C., McArthur, J.C., Fudyk, T., Glass, J.D., Mittoo, S., Klassen, G.A., Power, C. J. Neurovirol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. HIV expression strategies: ribosomal frameshifting is directed by a short sequence in both mammalian and yeast systems. Wilson, W., Braddock, M., Adams, S.E., Rathjen, P.D., Kingsman, S.M., Kingsman, A.J. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 distinct from group M and group O. Simon, F., Mauclère, P., Roques, P., Loussert-Ajaka, I., Müller-Trutwin, M.C., Saragosti, S., Georges-Courbot, M.C., Barré-Sinoussi, F., Brun-Vézinet, F. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Structures of ternary complexes of rat DNA polymerase beta, a DNA template-primer, and ddCTP. Pelletier, H., Sawaya, M.R., Kumar, A., Wilson, S.H., Kraut, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of rat DNA polymerase beta: evidence for a common polymerase mechanism. Sawaya, M.R., Pelletier, H., Kumar, A., Wilson, S.H., Kraut, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Zidovudine treatment is not associated with HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase gene mutations in HTLV-I/HIV-1 co-infected patients. Gasmi, M., Fillon, S., Leriche, K., Neisson-Vernant, C., Desgranges, C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Study on mutations and antiretroviral therapy (SMART): preliminary results. Gianotti, N., Moretti, F., Tambussi, G., Racca, S., Presi, S., Crucianelli, R., Carrera, P., Ferrari, M., Lazzarin, A. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutations in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in infected patients receiving didanosine and hydroxyurea combination therapy. De Antoni, A., Foli, A., Lisziewicz, J., Lori, F. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene mutations which cause decreased susceptibility to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine. Fitzgibbon, J.E., Howell, R.M., Haberzettl, C.A., Sperber, S.J., Gocke, D.J., Dubin, D.T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of the protease sequences of HIV-1 infected individuals after Indinavir monotherapy. Sa-Filho, D.J., Costa, L.J., de Oliveira, C.F., Guimarães, A.P., Accetturi, C.A., Tanuri, A., Diaz, R.S. J. Clin. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. HIV-1 viral load, phenotype, and resistance in a subset of drug-naive participants from the Delta trial. The National Virology Groups. Delta Virology Working Group and Coordinating Committee. Brun-Vézinet, F., Boucher, C., Loveday, C., Descamps, D., Fauveau, V., Izopet, J., Jeffries, D., Kaye, S., Krzyanowski, C., Nunn, A., Schuurman, R., Seigneurin, J.M., Tamalet, C., Tedder, R., Weber, J., Weverling, G.J. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity. Graves, M.C., Lim, J.J., Heimer, E.P., Kramer, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. An HIV-1 transgenic rat that develops HIV-related pathology and immunologic dysfunction. Reid, W., Sadowska, M., Denaro, F., Rao, S., Foulke, J., Hayes, N., Jones, O., Doodnauth, D., Davis, H., Sill, A., O'Driscoll, P., Huso, D., Fouts, T., Lewis, G., Hill, M., Kamin-Lewis, R., Wei, C., Ray, P., Gallo, R.C., Reitz, M., Bryant, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. DNA damage-dependent transcriptional arrest and termination of RNA polymerase II elongation complexes in DNA template containing HIV-1 promoter. Wang, Z., Rana, T.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Amino-terminal alteration of the HLA-A*0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus pol peptide increases complex stability and in vitro immunogenicity. Pogue, R.R., Eron, J., Frelinger, J.A., Matsui, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Adoptive transfer of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naïve autologous CD4(+) cells to macaques chronically infected with SIV is sufficient to induce long-term nonprogressor status. Villinger, F., Brice, G.T., Mayne, A.E., Bostik, P., Mori, K., June, C.H., Ansari, A.A. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Human immunodeficiency virus DNA amplification and serology in blood donors. Perrin, L.H., Yerly, S., Adami, N., Bachmann, P., Bütler-Brunner, E., Burckhardt, J., Kawashima, E. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. TFIIH functions in regulating transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II in Xenopus oocytes. Yankulov, K.Y., Pandes, M., McCracken, S., Bouchard, D., Bentley, D.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Viral load, viral phenotype modification, zidovudine susceptibility and reverse transcriptase mutations during the first 6 months of zidovudine monotherapy in HIV-1-infected people. Rusconi, S., De Pasquale, M.P., Mainini, F., Bulgheroni, E., Kurtagic, S., Gori, A., Violin, M., Zanchetta, N., Moroni, M., Balotta, C., Galli, M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Recombinant HIV2 protease processes HIV1 Pr53gag and analogous junction peptides in vitro. Pichuantes, S., Babé, L.M., Barr, P.J., DeCamp, D.L., Craik, C.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Differential incorporation and removal of antiviral deoxynucleotides by human DNA polymerase gamma. Lim, S.E., Copeland, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of expression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in vitro by antibody-targeted liposomes containing antisense RNA to the env region. Renneisen, K., Leserman, L., Matthes, E., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Generation and characterization of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutant resistant to an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. el-Farrash, M.A., Kuroda, M.J., Kitazaki, T., Masuda, T., Kato, K., Hatanaka, M., Harada, S. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular characterization of a recombinant HIV type 1 isolate (A/G/E/?): unidentified regions may be derived from parental subtype E sequences. Paraskevis, D., Magiorkinis, M., Paparizos, V., Pavlakis, G.N., Hatzakis, A. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Complement and virus-specific antibody-dependent infection of normal B lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Gras, G., Richard, Y., Roques, P., Olivier, R., Dormont, D. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region: outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals. Balotta, C., Berlusconi, A., Pan, A., Violin, M., Riva, C., Colombo, M.C., Gori, A., Papagno, L., Corvasce, S., Mazzucchelli, R., Facchi, G., Velleca, R., Saporetti, G., Galli, M., Rusconi, S., Moroni, M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Tat-associated kinase (P-TEFb): a component of transcription preinitiation and elongation complexes. Ping, Y.H., Rana, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Synthetic peptides as substrates and inhibitors of human immune deficiency virus-1 protease. Billich, S., Knoop, M.T., Hansen, J., Strop, P., Sedlacek, J., Mertz, R., Moelling, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. HIV-1 resistance genotyping on dried serum spots. Plantier, J.C., Dachraoui, R., Lemée, V., Gueudin, M., Borsa-Lebas, F., Caron, F., Simon, F. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
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