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Chemical Compound Review

Dyrenium     6-phenylpteridine-2,4,7- triamine

Synonyms: Dinazide, Triazide, Urocaudal, Dytac, triamterene, ...
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Disease relevance of Dyrenium


Psychiatry related information on Dyrenium


High impact information on Dyrenium

  • No other diuretic drug tested inhibited kallikrein activity, except triamterene, which did so, weakly [8].
  • It is possible that triamterene is a factor in the aetiology of interstitial nephritis [9].
  • After high-voltage long pulses (+50 mV; 5000 milliseconds), tail current amplitude of the slow component of IK (IKs) was decreased 36 +/- 6% (n = 6) and 51 +/- 8% (n = 6) by triamterene 10(-5) and 10(-4) mol/L, respectively [10].
  • Triamterene inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes [10].
  • In addition, the preliminary results of a multi-center, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of a potassium-sparing diuretic (Dyazide; Smith Kline & French Laboratories) in Hispanic-American patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension are presented [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dyrenium


Biological context of Dyrenium


Anatomical context of Dyrenium


Associations of Dyrenium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dyrenium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dyrenium

  • In a crossover study of 26 hypertensive patients, the effects of triamterene (50 mg/day) and amiloride (5 mg/day) on urinary sediment were compared [9].
  • Administration of spironolactone failed to correct the hypertension and electrolyte abnormality, which subsequently improved with triamterene therapy and a low salt diet [21].
  • Rapid method for the determination of the diuretic triamterene and its metabolites in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography [32].
  • A HPLC method with a very sensitive electrochemical detection has been developed for determining the diuretic agent hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in serum of volunteers to whom a single dose of the fixed combination of 12.5 mg HCT and 25 mg triamterene was administered [33].
  • Hypokalemic and ECG sequelae of combined beta-agonist/diuretic therapy. Protection by conventional doses of spironolactone but not triamterene [34].


  1. Triamterene-induced nephrolithiasis. Grunberg, R.W., Silberg, S.J. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Triamterene nephrolithiasis. Ettinger, B., Oldroyd, N.O., Sörgel, F. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Triamterene-induced acute interstitial nephritis. Bailey, R.R., Lynn, K.L., Drennan, C.J., Turner, G.A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversible acute renal failure from combined triamterene and indomethacin: a study in healthy subjects. Favre, L., Glasson, P., Vallotton, M.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Dyazide and hyperkalemia. Petersen, A.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Chronic hydrochlorothiazide and verapamil effects on motor activity in hypertensive baboons. Turkkan, J.S., Allen, R.P., Hienz, R.D. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Lithium toxicity induced by triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide. Mehta, B.R., Robinson, B.H. Postgraduate medical journal. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Amiloride inhibits mammalian renal kallikrein and a kallikrein-like enzyme from toad bladder and skin. Margolius, H.S., Chao, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of triamterene and amiloride on urinary sediment in hypertensive patients taking hydrochlorothiazide. Spence, J.D., Wong, D.G., Lindsay, R.M. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Triamterene inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Daleau, P., Turgeon, J. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypertension in the Hispanic-American population. Caralis, P.V. Am. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical experience with a new combination formulation of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide (Maxzide) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Williams, R.L., Clark, T., Blume, C.D. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Effectiveness of potassium chloride or triamterene in thiazide hypokalemia. Papademetriou, V., Burris, J., Kukich, S., Freis, E.D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. A single-blind, randomized, cross-over study of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in the elderly. Woo, J., Woo, K.S., Kin, T., Vallance-Owen, J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis exacerbated by acetazolamide. Torres, C.F., Griggs, R.C., Moxley, R.T., Bender, A.N. Neurology (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Clinical trial of gossypol as a male contraceptive drug. Part II. Hypokalemia study. Liu, G.Z., Lyle, K.C. Fertil. Steril. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Bioequivalence study of a new tablet formulation of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide. Blume, C.D., Williams, R.L., Upton, R.A., Lin, E.T., Benet, L.Z. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Triamterene kinetics and dynamics in cirrhosis. Villeneuve, J.P., Rocheleau, F., Raymond, G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of cimetidine on renal and hepatic drug elimination: studies with triamterene. Muirhead, M.R., Somogyi, A.A., Rolan, P.E., Bochner, F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of triamterene and sodium intake on renin, aldosterone, and erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome. Wang, C., Chan, T.K., Yeung, R.T., Coghlan, J.P., Scoggins, B.A., Stockigt, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Liddle's syndrome, an uncommon form of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism: functional and histopathological studies. Nakada, T., Koike, H., Akiya, T., Katayama, T., Kawamata, S., Takaya, K., Shigematsu, H. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Fluctuation analysis of short-circuit current in a warm-blooded sodium-retaining epithelium: site current, density, and interaction with triamterene. Christensen, O., Bindslev, N. J. Membr. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Transfer characteristics of triamterene and its analogs. Central nervous system, placenta, and kidney. Pruitt, A.W., McNay, J.L., Dayton, P.G. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Mode of action of cyclothiazide and triamterene. Ex vivo effect on 22Na and 86Rb efflux from arterial smooth muscle. Moura, A.M., Worcel, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Triamterene-induced changes in aldosterone and renin values in essential hypertension. Evidence of a role for aldosterone in preventing blood pressure reduction. Keim, H.J., Drayer, J.I., Thurston, H., Laragh, J.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between triamterene and ranitidine in humans: alterations in renal and hepatic clearances and gastrointestinal absorption. Muirhead, M., Bochner, F., Somogyi, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Interaction of diuretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in man. Favre, L., Glasson, P., Riondel, A., Vallotton, M.B. Clin. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Relative potency of spironolactone, triamterene and potassium chloride in thiazide-induced hypokalaemia. Jackson, P.R., Ramsay, L.E., Wakefield, V. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Rate-limiting biotransformation of triamterene is mediated by CYP1A2. Fuhr, U., Kober, S., Zaigler, M., Mutschler, E., Spahn-Langguth, H. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Differing effects of mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and -independent potassium-sparing diuretics on fibrinolytic balance. Ma, J., Albornoz, F., Yu, C., Byrne, D.W., Vaughan, D.E., Brown, N.J. Hypertension (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of triamterene on tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Steinberg, P., Rubio, M.C. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Rapid method for the determination of the diuretic triamterene and its metabolites in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Swart, K.J., Botha, H. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. New sensitive method for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Richter, K., Oertel, R., Kirch, W. Journal of chromatography. A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Hypokalemic and ECG sequelae of combined beta-agonist/diuretic therapy. Protection by conventional doses of spironolactone but not triamterene. Lipworth, B.J., McDevitt, D.G., Struthers, A.D. Chest (1990) [Pubmed]
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