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Chemical Compound Review

Hokunalin     1-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(tert- butylamino)ethanol

Synonyms: tulobuterol, Tulobuterolum, Hokunalin (TN), Atenos (TN), SureCN122692, ...
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Disease relevance of Hokunalin


Psychiatry related information on Hokunalin


High impact information on Hokunalin


Chemical compound and disease context of Hokunalin


Biological context of Hokunalin


Anatomical context of Hokunalin


Associations of Hokunalin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Hokunalin

  • In each experiment, serum tulobuterol concentrations were measured at four time points, and total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells for determinations of hPer1 mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction [16].
  • However, the inhibitory effects of tulobuterol were not affected after exposure to 0.01 micro mol/L tulobuterol (a concentration greater than serum levels in clinical use) [2].
  • In the present study, a total of 24 adult patients with mild persistent (Step 2) or moderate persistent (Step 3) bronchial asthma, consisting of 13 and 11 patients, who were or were not using inhalational steroids, respectively, used tulobuterol TTS (Hokunalin Tape) for one year and underwent measurement of peak expiratory flow (PEF) once daily [17].
  • There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics in the tulobuterol versus salmeterol groups: age, 69.2 +/- 7.4 vs 71.6 +/- 7.3 years; male, 91% versus 96%; and patients with stage II (III) COPD, 32.6% (67.4%) versus 50% (50%) [18].
  • Tulobuterol transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) is the world's first commercially available transdermal preparation of tulobuterol, a beta2-stimulant that can maintain effective blood tulobuterol (CAS 41570-61-0) levels for 24 h when applied once daily [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hokunalin


  1. Bronchodilator activity of a new inhaled beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, tulobuterol and its protective effect in exercise-induced asthma. Patel, K.R. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of sustained-release tulobuterol on asthma control and beta-adrenoceptor function. Kume, H., Kondo, M., Ito, Y., Suzuki, R., Yamaki, K., Takagi, K. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. One-month inhalation toxicity study of tulobuterol hydrochloride in rats and dogs. Dudley, R.E., Patterson, S.E., Machotka, S.V., Kesterson, J.W. Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Tulobuterol in the management of obstructive airways disease in adults. Patel, K.R. Clinical therapeutics. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Beta-2 adrenergic responses to tulobuterol in airway smooth muscle, vascular smooth muscle and adrenergic nerves. Ruff, F., Zander, J.F., Edoute, Y., Santais, M.C., Flavahan, N.A., Verbeuren, T.J., Vanhoutte, P.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction and reduction of muscle tremor upon acute and repeated administration of the beta 2-agonists terbutaline, salbutamol and tulobuterol. Schaffler, K., Reeh, P.W. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Action of tulobuterol and fenoterol on the mucociliary clearance. Matthys, H., Daikeler, G., Krauss, B., Vastag, E. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the tulobuterol patch, HN-078, in childhood asthma. Iikura, Y., Uchiyama, H., Akimoto, K., Ebisawa, M., Sakaguchi, N., Tsubaki, T., Ishizu, H., Kabayama, H., Yagi, K., Miura, K. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Alteration of the circadian rhythm in peak expiratory flow of nocturnal asthma following nighttime transdermal beta2-adrenoceptor agonist tulobuterol chronotherapy. Burioka, N., Miyata, M., Endo, M., Fukuoka, Y., Suyama, H., Nakazaki, H., Igawa, K., Shimizu, E. Chronobiol. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Prolonged treatment with oral and inhaled tulobuterol does not induce airways tachyphlaxis. Patel, K.R. Lung (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. The effects of beta 2-agonists and caffeine on respiratory and limb muscle performance. Lanigan, C., Howes, T.Q., Borzone, G., Vianna, L.G., Moxham, J. Eur. Respir. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential effects of short-acting beta2-agonists on human granulocyte functions. Yasui, K., Kobayashi, N., Yamazaki, T., Agematsu, K., Matsuzaki, S., Nakata, S., Baba, A. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Electrophysiological effects mediated by the stimulation of cardiac beta 2-adrenoceptors with tulobuterol. Mugelli, A., Amerini, S., De Bonfioli Cavalcabo, P., Cerbai, E., Visentin, S. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. The actions of tulobuterol on isolated preparations of gravid human myometrium. Ziccone, S.P., Paull, J.D. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of the effects of tulobuterol patch and salmeterol in moderate to severe asthma. Nishiyama, O., Taniguchi, H., Kondoh, Y., Kimura, T., Kato, K., Kume, H., Shimokata, K. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor agonist in vivo induces human clock gene, Per1, mRNA expression in peripheral blood. Burioka, N., Takata, M., Endo, M., Miyata, M., Takeda, K., Chikumi, H., Tomita, K., Fukuoka, Y., Nakazaki, H., Sano, H., Shimizu, E. Chronobiol. Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical evaluation of a transdermal therapeutic system of the beta2-agonist tulobuterol in patients with mild or moderate persistent bronchial asthma. Horiguchi, T., Kondo, R., Miyazaki, J., Fukumokto, K., Torigoe, H. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Clinical efficacy and safety of transdermal tulobuterol in the treatment of stable COPD: an open-label comparison with inhaled salmeterol. Fukuchi, Y., Nagai, A., Seyama, K., Nishimura, M., Hirata, K., Kubo, K., Ichinose, M., Aizawa, H., Research Group, T.B. Treatments in respiratory medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of tulobuterol in human plasma by capillary gas chromatography. Wood, S.G., Chasseaud, L.F. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of tulobuterol in rabbit's plasma. Xu, F., Zhang, Z., Tian, Y., Jiao, H., Liang, J., Gong, G. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2005) [Pubmed]
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