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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tremor


Psychiatry related information on Tremor


High impact information on Tremor


Chemical compound and disease context of Tremor

  • Retrospectively, helpful early pointers to the diagnosis in these cases included unexplained falls, autonomic dysfunction, absence of rest tremor and failure to respond to L-dopa, but these were not always present [15].
  • Microinjections of 5-10 microl of muscimol in a region with tremor-related activity resulted in suppression of limb tremor in two out of two patients [16].
  • Four patients with disabling action tremor in the setting of MS were treated with isoniazid (800 to 1200 mg per day) [17].
  • METHODS: Using [123I]-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2 -carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane SPECT, we measured the basal ganglia-occipital cortex/occipital cortex ([BG-OCC]/OCC) uptake ratios in 21 control subjects and patients with isolated postural tremor (n = 9), postural and rest tremor (n = 6), and PD (n = 11) [18].
  • Additionally, ChAT activity in caudate and norepinephrine concentration in putamen were significantly reduced in the LBV group, which may have contributed to the absence of resting tremor and the milder presentation of parkinsonian features in this group compared with classic PD [19].

Biological context of Tremor


Anatomical context of Tremor


Gene context of Tremor

  • Since male premutation carriers are relatively common in the general population, older men with ataxia and intention tremor should be screened for the FMR1 mutation, especially if these signs are accompanied by parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, or cognitive decline, regardless of family history [29].
  • The MBP/c-myc transgenic mice developed severe neurological disturbances characterized by action tremors and recurrent seizures, and premature death during postnatal weeks three to five [30].
  • There is evidence that male subjects with a clinical picture of action tremor, Parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia may have Fragile X premutations (FRAXA) [31].
  • Mutants from the pcd/pcd strain also reacted with continuous tremor, but of lower amplitude and frequency [32].
  • Initial analyses of Cx32/Cx47-double-deficient mice showed that these mice developed an action tremor and died on average at 51 d after birth [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tremor


  1. Peripheral beta-adrenergic blockade treatment of parkinsonian tremor. Foster, N.L., Newman, R.P., LeWitt, P.A., Gillespie, M.M., Larsen, T.A., Chase, T.N. Ann. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Essential tremor and cerebellar dysfunction clinical and kinematic analysis of intention tremor. Deuschl, G., Wenzelburger, R., Löffler, K., Raethjen, J., Stolze, H. Brain (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Metoclopramide-induced parkinsonism in hemodialysis patients. Report of two cases. Sirota, R.A., Kimmel, P.L., Trichtinger, M.D., Diamond, B.F., Stein, H.D., Yudis, M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. A multi-incident, Old-Order Amish family with PD. Racette, B.A., Rundle, M., Wang, J.C., Goate, A., Saccone, N.L., Farrer, M., Lincoln, S., Hussey, J., Smemo, S., Lin, J., Suarez, B., Parsian, A., Perlmutter, J.S. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Therapy of intention myoclonus with L-5-hydroxytryptophan and a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, MK 486. Van Woert, M.H., Sethy, V.H. Neurology (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Quantification of muscle tremor of Huntington's disease patients and their offspring in an early detection study. Myers, R.H., Falek, A. Biol. Psychiatry (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Progressive dementia and epilepsy in a young adult: unusual intraneuronal inclusions. Yerby, M.S., Shaw, C.M., Watson, J.M. Neurology (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Periodic benzodiazepine antagonist administration prevents benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in primates. Gallager, D.W., Heninger, K., Heninger, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Muscle spindle-derived neurotrophin 3 regulates synaptic connectivity between muscle sensory and motor neurons. Chen, H.H., Tourtellotte, W.G., Frank, E. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Deficient cerebellar long-term depression and impaired motor learning in mGluR1 mutant mice. Aiba, A., Kano, M., Chen, C., Stanton, M.E., Fox, G.D., Herrup, K., Zwingman, T.A., Tonegawa, S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Beta-adrenergic mechanisms in action tremor. Young, R.R., Growdon, J.H., Shahani, B.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Profound ataxia in complexin I knockout mice masks a complex phenotype that includes exploratory and habituation deficits. Glynn, D., Drew, C.J., Reim, K., Brose, N., Morton, A.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The FMR1 CGG repeat mouse displays ubiquitin-positive intranuclear neuronal inclusions; implications for the cerebellar tremor/ataxia syndrome. Willemsen, R., Hoogeveen-Westerveld, M., Reis, S., Holstege, J., Severijnen, L.A., Nieuwenhuizen, I.M., Schrier, M., van Unen, L., Tassone, F., Hoogeveen, A.T., Hagerman, P.J., Mientjes, E.J., Oostra, B.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Successful treatment of two cases of intention tremor with clonazepam. Trelles, L., Trelles, J.O., Castro, C., Altamirano, J., Benzaquen, M. Ann. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Striatonigral degeneration. A clinicopathological study. Fearnley, J.M., Lees, A.J. Brain (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Lidocaine and muscimol microinjections in subthalamic nucleus reverse Parkinsonian symptoms. Levy, R., Lang, A.E., Dostrovsky, J.O., Pahapill, P., Romas, J., Saint-Cyr, J., Hutchison, W.D., Lozano, A.M. Brain (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of action tremor in multiple sclerosis with isoniazid. Sabra, A.F., Hallett, M., Sudarsky, L., Mullally, W. Neurology (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. 123I-IPT brain SPECT study in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. Lee, M.S., Kim, Y.D., Im, J.H., Kim, H.J., Rinne, J.O., Bhatia, K.P. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurotransmitters in basal ganglia and cortex of Alzheimer's disease with and without Lewy bodies. Langlais, P.J., Thal, L., Hansen, L., Galasko, D., Alford, M., Masliah, E. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical and genetic analysis of a Tunisian family with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type 1 linked to the SCA2 locus. Belal, S., Cancel, G., Stevanin, G., Hentati, F., Khati, C., Ben Hamida, C., Auburger, G., Agid, Y., Ben Hamida, M., Brice, A. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Arginine requirements in immature dogs. Ha, Y.H., Milner, J.A., Corbin, J.E. J. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Bronchodilator activity of a new inhaled beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, tulobuterol and its protective effect in exercise-induced asthma. Patel, K.R. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of acute and chronic toluene inhalation on behavior and (3H)-serotonin binding in rat. Yamawaki, S., Segawa, T., Sarai, K. Life Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Essential tremor: occupational exposures to manganese and organic solvents. Louis, E.D., Applegate, L.M., Factor-Litvak, P., Parides, M.K., Andrews, L. Neurology (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Microcephaly vera, progressive motor neuron disease, and nigral degeneration. Halperin, J.J., Williams, R.S., Kolodny, E.H. Neurology (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Clinical correlates of action tremor in Parkinson disease. Louis, E.D., Levy, G., Côte, L.J., Mejia, H., Fahn, S., Marder, K. Arch. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Assessment of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in asthmatic patients. Ruffin, R.E., McIntyre, E.L., Latimer, K.M., Ward, H.E., Crockett, A.J., Alpers, J.H. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Reversible neurotoxicity induced by a combination of clozapine and lithium: a case report. Lee, S.H., Yang, Y.Y. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Penetrance of the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome in a premutation carrier population. Jacquemont, S., Hagerman, R.J., Leehey, M.A., Hall, D.A., Levine, R.A., Brunberg, J.A., Zhang, L., Jardini, T., Gane, L.W., Harris, S.W., Herman, K., Grigsby, J., Greco, C.M., Berry-Kravis, E., Tassone, F., Hagerman, P.J. JAMA (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Failure of central nervous system myelination in MBP/c-myc transgenic mice: evidence for c-myc cytotoxicity. Jensen, N.A., Pedersen, K.M., Celis, J.E., West, M.J. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. FRAXE intermediate alleles are associated with Parkinson's disease. Annesi, G., Nicoletti, G., Tarantino, P., Cutuli, N., Annesi, F., Marco, E.V., Zappia, M., Morgante, L., Arabia, G., Pugliese, P., Condino, F., Carrideo, S., Civitelli, D., Caracciolo, M., Romeo, N., Spadafora, P., Candiano, I.C., Quattrone, A. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. EMG analysis of harmaline-induced tremor in normal and three strains of mutant mice with Purkinje cell degeneration and the role of the inferior olive. Milner, T.E., Cadoret, G., Lessard, L., Smith, A.M. J. Neurophysiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Connexin 47 (Cx47)-deficient mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene reveal predominant oligodendrocytic expression of Cx47 and display vacuolized myelin in the CNS. Odermatt, B., Wellershaus, K., Wallraff, A., Seifert, G., Degen, J., Euwens, C., Fuss, B., Büssow, H., Schilling, K., Steinhäuser, C., Willecke, K. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Correlation of dopamine transporter imaging with parkinsonian motor handicap: how close is it? Pirker, W. Mov. Disord. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Assistive technology to improve PC interaction for people with intention tremor. Feys, P., Romberg, A., Ruutiainen, J., Davies-Smith, A., Jones, R., Avizzano, C.A., Bergamasco, M., Ketelaer, P. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Elevated basal ganglia glucose metabolism in cyclosporine neurotoxicity: a positron emission tomography imaging study. Meyer, M.A. Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging. (2002) [Pubmed]
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