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Chemical Compound Review

Parasept     propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate

Synonyms: Paseptol, Propagin, Nipasol, Nipazol, PROPYLPARABEN, ...
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Disease relevance of Propyl Chemosept


High impact information on Propyl Chemosept


Chemical compound and disease context of Propyl Chemosept


Biological context of Propyl Chemosept


Anatomical context of Propyl Chemosept


Associations of Propyl Chemosept with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Propyl Chemosept

  • Overall, PP was the antioxidant which was most effective at inhibiting strains of both species [28].
  • Propyl paraben (CAS no. 94-13-3) is a stable, non-volatile compound used as an antimicrobial preservative in foods, drugs and cosmetics for over 50 years [23].
  • Symptoms persisted despite the use of antihistamine therapy, Actrapid HM Paraben and Monotard (insulin without protamine and metacresol) and immunosuppression (tacrolimus) [29].
  • However, the effect of the paraben distribution on zeta potential and pH of emulsion fluctuated depending on the type of phospholipid used [30].
  • Zebrafish exposure to propylparaben at the concentrations of 0.1; 0.4 and 0.9 mg/l elicited statistically significant decline (P<0.001) of vitellogenin production, i.e. geometric means of vitellogenin concentrations in whole body homogenates were 240 (186-311); 218 (175-270) and 270 (234-311) ng/ml, respectively [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Propyl Chemosept


  1. Drug-induced skin disease. Kaplan, A.P. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Propyl paraben induces potassium efflux in Escherichia coli. Bredin, J., Davin-Régli, A., Pagès, J.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. prbA, a gene coding for an esterase hydrolyzing parabens in enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter gergoviae strains. Valkova, N., Lépine, F., Bollet, C., Dupont, M., Villemur, R. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Hydrolysis of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and their aerobic transformation into phenol by the resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain EM. Valkova, N., Lépine, F., Valeanu, L., Dupont, M., Labrie, L., Bisaillon, J.G., Beaudet, R., Shareck, F., Villemur, R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Paraben-induced dermatitis. Fisher, A.A. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health. Golden, R., Gandy, J., Vollmer, G. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methyl paraben) on Ca2+ concentration and histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells. Fukugasako, S., Ito, S., Ikemoto, Y. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in p-hydroxybenzoate ester-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes. Nakagawa, Y., Moore, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Cortaid cream dermatitis and the "paraben paradox". Fisher, A.A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Oestrogenic activity of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (common metabolite of paraben esters) and methylparaben in human breast cancer cell lines. Pugazhendhi, D., Pope, G.S., Darbre, P.D. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Allergic paraben and benzyl alcohol hypersensitivity relationship of the "delayed" and "immediate" varieties. Fisher, A.A. Contact Derm. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Addition of 2.5% lactate and 0.25% acetate controls growth of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum-packed, sensory-acceptable servelat sausage and cooked ham stored at 4 degrees C. Blom, H., Nerbrink, E., Dainty, R., Hagtvedt, T., Borch, E., Nissen, H., Nesbakken, T. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of psoriasis of the scalp with betamethasone 17, 21-dipropionate plus salicylic acid lotion ('Diprosalic'). Høvding, G. Pharmatherapeutica. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Paraben preservatives do not increase intracranial pressure in cats. Pompy, L., Karlin, A., Capuano, C.M., Cottrell, J.E., Hartung, J. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by slow release of propyl paraben from a polymer coating. Chung, D., Chikindas, M.L., Yam, K.L. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Irreversible paraben inhibition of glycolysis by Streptococcus mutans GS-5. Ma, Y., Marquis, R.E. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Methylparaben and propylparaben do not alter cerebral blood flow in humans. Gelb, A.W., Gignac, E., Manninen, P.H., Farrar, J.K., Lee, D.H. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Parabens: a review of epidemiology, structure, allergenicity, and hormonal properties. Cashman, A.L., Warshaw, E.M. Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug : official journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society, North American Contact Dermatitis Group. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Prevention of bacterial colonization on polyurethane in vitro by incorporated antibacterial agent. Golomb, G., Shpigelman, A. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of the health aspects of methyl paraben: a review of the published literature. Soni, M.G., Taylor, S.L., Greenberg, N.A., Burdock, G.A. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system. Oishi, S. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. Ishiwatari, S., Suzuki, T., Hitomi, T., Yoshino, T., Matsukuma, S., Tsuji, T. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature. Soni, M.G., Burdock, G.A., Taylor, S.L., Greenberg, N.A. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition by antimicrobial food additives of ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus sulphureus and Penicillium viridicatum. Tong, C.H., Draughon, F.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Paraben preservatives but not succinylcholine are cerebral vasodilators in vitro. Hamilton, J.T., Zhou, Y., Gelb, A.W. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Influence of crystal structure on the compaction properties of n-alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens). Feng, Y., Grant, D.J. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Optimisation of a solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of parabens in water samples at the low ng per litre level. Canosa, P., Rodríguez, I., Rubí, E., Bollaín, M.H., Cela, R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. In vitro control of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum using antioxidants under different water availability and temperature regimes. Etcheverry, M., Torres, A., Ramirez, M.L., Chulze, S., Magan, N. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Solitary pancreas transplantation for life-threatening allergy to human insulin. Léonet, J., Malaise, J., Goffin, E., Lefebvre, C., Tennstedt, D., Vandeleene, B., Buysschaert, M., Squifflet, J.P. Transpl. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The influence of physicochemical properties of preservative compounds on their distribution into various phases of oil in water submicron emulsion. Sila-On, W., Vardhanabhuti, N., Ongpipattanakul, B., Kulvanich, P. PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology / PDA (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Evaluation of xenoestrogenic potential of propylparaben in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mikula, P., Dobsikova, R., Svobodova, Z., Jarkovsky, J. Neuro Endocrinol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Determination of parabens in pharmaceutical formulations by solid-phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry. Lokhnauth, J.K., Snow, N.H. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Simultaneous determination of preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methylparaben and propylparaben) in foodstuffs using high-performance liquid chromatography. Saad, B., Bari, M.F., Saleh, M.I., Ahmad, K., Talib, M.K. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Simultaneous quantitation of morphine and paraben preservatives in morphine injectables. Austin, K.L., Mather, L.E. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1978) [Pubmed]
  35. Burkholderia cepacia infections associated with intrinsically contaminated ultrasound gel: the role of microbial degradation of parabens. Hutchinson, J., Runge, W., Mulvey, M., Norris, G., Yetman, M., Valkova, N., Villemur, R., Lepine, F. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lee, M.R., Lin, C.Y., Li, Z.G., Tsai, T.F. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
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