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Chemical Compound Review

Squalamine     (3S,5R,7R,8S,9S,10S,13R,14S,17 R)-3-[3-(4...

Synonyms: CHEMBL444929, KST-1A1583, LMST05050024, AR-1A5187, LS-173336, ...
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Disease relevance of Squalamine

  • This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria [1].
  • Diaphyseal chondrocyte maturation was indeed delayed in squalamine-treated humeri, as indicated by reduced cell hypertrophy and expression of type X collagen, transferrin, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) [2].
  • To determine how to most effectively use this agent in patients with cancer, we examined the antitumor effects of squalamine with or without cytotoxic agents in human lung cancer xenografts and correlated these observations with the degree of tumor neovascularization [3].
  • On the basis of safety and toxicity, 300 mg/m(2)/day was selected as the Phase II dose of squalamine in this combination regimen [4].
  • To broaden our understanding of the clinical potential for squalamine, this agent was evaluated in nu/nu mouse xenograft models using the chemoresistant MV-522 human non-small cell lung carcinoma and the SD human neuroblastoma lines [5].

High impact information on Squalamine


Chemical compound and disease context of Squalamine


Biological context of Squalamine


Anatomical context of Squalamine


Associations of Squalamine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Squalamine

  • Although HER-2-overexpressing tumors had more angiogenic and less apoptotic activity than parental cancers, growth of both tumor types was similarly suppressed by treatment with squalamine combined with cisplatin [7].
  • Differential inhibition of AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers by oxonol dyes and by novel polyaminosterol analogs of the shark antibiotic squalamine [18].
  • Squalamine is a novel anti-angiogenic aminosterol that is postulated to inhibit neovascularization by selectively inhibiting the sodium-hydrogen antiporter exchanger [3].
  • Squalamine plus cisplatin reduced CD31 vessel formation by 25% compared with controls, squalamine alone, or cisplatin alone; however, no inhibition in CD31 vessel formation was observed when squalamine was combined with vinorelbine [3].
  • Squalamine (25 mg/kg, subcutaneous)treated animals received either daily doses for five days from P12 to P16 or one dose just after removal from oxygen on P12 [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Squalamine


  1. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark. Moore, K.S., Wehrli, S., Roder, H., Rogers, M., Forrest, J.N., McCrimmon, D., Zasloff, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Antiangiogenic treatment delays chondrocyte maturation and bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. Yin, M., Gentili, C., Koyama, E., Zasloff, M., Pacifici, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Potentiation of platinum antitumor effects in human lung tumor xenografts by the angiogenesis inhibitor squalamine: effects on tumor neovascularization. Schiller, J.H., Bittner, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A phase I/IIA trial of continuous five-day infusion of squalamine lactate (MSI-1256F) plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Herbst, R.S., Hammond, L.A., Carbone, D.P., Tran, H.T., Holroyd, K.J., Desai, A., Williams, J.I., Bekele, B.N., Hait, H., Allgood, V., Solomon, S., Schiller, J.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Squalamine treatment of human tumors in nu/nu mice enhances platinum-based chemotherapies. Williams, J.I., Weitman, S., Gonzalez, C.M., Jundt, C.H., Marty, J., Stringer, S.D., Holroyd, K.J., Mclane, M.P., Chen, Q., Zasloff, M., Von Hoff, D.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Squalamine inhibits angiogenesis and solid tumor growth in vivo and perturbs embryonic vasculature. Sills, A.K., Williams, J.I., Tyler, B.M., Epstein, D.S., Sipos, E.P., Davis, J.D., McLane, M.P., Pitchford, S., Cheshire, K., Gannon, F.H., Kinney, W.A., Chao, T.L., Donowitz, M., Laterra, J., Zasloff, M., Brem, H. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Squalamine and cisplatin block angiogenesis and growth of human ovarian cancer cells with or without HER-2 gene overexpression. Li, D., Williams, J.I., Pietras, R.J. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Connolly, B., Desai, A., Garcia, C.A., Thomas, E., Gast, M.J. Ophthalmology clinics of North America. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of squalamine, an aminosterol angiogenesis inhibitor. Hao, D., Hammond, L.A., Eckhardt, S.G., Patnaik, A., Takimoto, C.H., Schwartz, G.H., Goetz, A.D., Tolcher, A.W., McCreery, H.A., Mamun, K., Williams, J.I., Holroyd, K.J., Rowinsky, E.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A short formal synthesis of squalamine from a microbial metabolite. Kinney, W.A., Zhang, X., Williams, J.I., Johnston, S., Michalak, R.S., Deshpande, M., Dostal, L., Rosazza, J.P. Org. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Regression of retinopathy by squalamine in a mouse model. Higgins, R.D., Yan, Y., Geng, Y., Zasloff, M., Williams, J.I. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Partial correction of defective Cl(-) secretion in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells by an analog of squalamine. Jiang, C., Lee, E.R., Lane, M.B., Xiao, Y.F., Harris, D.J., Cheng, S.H. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of the K54 and O4 specific antigen has opposite effects on the bactericidal activity of squalamine against an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli. Russo, T.A., Mylotte, D. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure of the novel steroidal antibiotic squalamine determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Wehrli, S.L., Moore, K.S., Roder, H., Durell, S., Zasloff, M. Steroids (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Evolving European guidance on the medical management of neovascular age related macular degeneration. Chakravarthy, U., Soubrane, G., Bandello, F., Chong, V., Creuzot-Garcher, C., Dimitrakos, S.A., Korobelnik, J.F., Larsen, M., Monés, J., Pauleikhoff, D., Pournaras, C.J., Staurenghi, G., Virgili, G., Wolf, S. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Squalamine lactate reduces choroidal neovascularization in a laser-injury model in the rat. Ciulla, T.A., Criswell, M.H., Danis, R.P., Williams, J.I., McLane, M.P., Holroyd, K.J. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Squalamine: a polyvalent drug of the future? Brunel, J.M., Salmi, C., Loncle, C., Vidal, N., Letourneux, Y. Current cancer drug targets. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential inhibition of AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers by oxonol dyes and by novel polyaminosterol analogs of the shark antibiotic squalamine. Alper, S.L., Chernova, M.N., Williams, J., Zasloff, M., Law, F.Y., Knauf, P.A. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Squalamine improves retinal neovascularization. Higgins, R.D., Sanders, R.J., Yan, Y., Zasloff, M., Williams, J.I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of squalamine, a novel antiangiogenic agent, in patients with advanced cancers. Bhargava, P., Marshall, J.L., Dahut, W., Rizvi, N., Trocky, N., Williams, J.I., Hait, H., Song, S., Holroyd, K.J., Hawkins, M.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Potential of the aminosterol, squalamine in combination therapy in the rat 13,762 mammary carcinoma and the murine Lewis lung carcinoma. Teicher, B.A., Williams, J.I., Takeuchi, H., Ara, G., Herbst, R.S., Buxton, D. Anticancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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