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Gene Review

gyrA  -  DNA gyrase subunit A

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of gyrA


High impact information on gyrA

  • In the Deltafis strain, both topA and gyrA/B genes were found to be upregulated [6].
  • Forward mutation frequencies and rates were measured at two chromosomal loci, rpoB and gyrA, and base substitution and frameshift mutation frequencies were measured on an F'(lacZ) episome [7].
  • When wild-type Pol II (polB+) was replaced on the chromosome by a proofreading-defective Pol II exo- (polBex1), there was a significant increase in mutation frequencies to rifampicin resistance (RifR) (rpoB) and nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) (gyrA) [7].
  • In this paper we report a deletion analysis of the gyrA and gyrB promoter regions [8].
  • Multicopy recombinant plasmids containing the Escherichia coli gyrA gene are able to complement both the growth defects and the elevated his operon expression associated with the hisW mutations [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of gyrA


Biological context of gyrA

  • Typhimurium representative single-step mutants showed reduced susceptibilities associated with point mutations in the QRDR of the gyrA gene or efflux pump system [14].
  • The molecular background for the fluoroquinolone-resistance was investigated and point mutations in gyrA and parC leading to amino-acid substitutions in quinolone-resistance determining regions of GyrA and ParC were demonstrated [15].
  • The gene gyrA encoding the DNA gyrase A subunit of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been cloned in the plasmid pBR322 [4].
  • The cloned DNA precisely defines the physical location of the gyrA mutation on the B. subtilis chromosome [3].
  • This T4 topoisomerase subunit shares significant amino acid sequence homology with the gyrA subunit of bacterial gyrases and the carboxyl-half of yeast topoisomerase II in spite of the large differences in their sizes, confirming their functional equivalence in type II enzyme directed DNA topoisomerization [16].

Anatomical context of gyrA

  • Development of a rapid assay for detecting gyrA mutations in Escherichia coli and determination of incidence of gyrA mutations in clinical strains isolated from patients with complicated urinary tract infections [17].

Associations of gyrA with chemical compounds


Other interactions of gyrA

  • We characterized gyrA and parC mutations and organic solvent tolerance (OST) [22].
  • In this study, the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) in gyrA and gyrB of in vitro fluoroquinolone-resistant Rhodococcus equi mutants was sequenced [2].
  • Conjugation experiments established the following gene order: gyrA (formerly nalA) lysP metG his [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gyrA


  1. Bactericidal activity and target preference of a piperazinyl-cross-linked ciprofloxacin dimer with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Zhao, X., Quinn, B., Kerns, R., Drlica, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A nucleotide mutation associated with fluoroquinolone resistance observed in gyrA of in vitro obtained Rhodococcus equi mutants. Niwa, H., Hobo, S., Anzai, T. Vet. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning the gyrA gene of Bacillus subtilis. Lampe, M.F., Bott, K.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of gyrA gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Dimri, G.P., Das, H.K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanism of DNA gyrase-mediated illegitimate recombination: characterization of Escherichia coli gyrA mutations that confer hyper-recombination phenotype. Ashizawa, Y., Yokochi, T., Ogata, Y., Shobuike, Y., Kato, J., Ikeda, H. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynamic state of DNA topology is essential for genome condensation in bacteria. Ohniwa, R.L., Morikawa, K., Kim, J., Ohta, T., Ishihama, A., Wada, C., Takeyasu, K. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II catalyzes chromosomal and episomal DNA synthesis in vivo. Rangarajan, S., Gudmundsson, G., Qiu, Z., Foster, P.L., Goodman, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Modulation of transcription by DNA supercoiling: a deletion analysis of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB promoters. Menzel, R., Gellert, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. his operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium are regulated by DNA supercoiling. Rudd, K.E., Menzel, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Persistence mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients undergoing ciprofloxacin therapy. Diver, J.M., Schollaardt, T., Rabin, H.R., Thorson, C., Bryan, L.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo selection of reduced enrofloxacin susceptibility in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and its resistance-related mutations in gyrA. Marien, M., Decostere, A., Nauwynck, H., Froyman, R., Devriese, L., Haesebrouck, F. Microb. Drug Resist. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Prolonged environmental stress via a two step process selects mutants of Escherichia, Salmonella and Pseudomonas that grow at 54 degrees C. Droffner, M.L., Yamamoto, N. Arch. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Gatifloxacin activity against quinolone-resistant gyrase: allele-specific enhancement of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities by the C-8-methoxy group. Lu, T., Zhao, X., Drlica, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutant prevention concentration of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pasquali, F., Manfreda, G. Vet. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Vertical transmission of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli within an integrated broiler operation. Petersen, A., Christensen, J.P., Kuhnert, P., Bisgaard, M., Olsen, J.E. Vet. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The 52-protein subunit of T4 DNA topoisomerase is homologous to the gyrA-protein of gyrase. Huang, W.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Development of a rapid assay for detecting gyrA mutations in Escherichia coli and determination of incidence of gyrA mutations in clinical strains isolated from patients with complicated urinary tract infections. Ozeki, S., Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M., Nakano, M., Kawamura, T., Nishino, Y., Kawada, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Antibacterial evaluation of a collection of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin derivatives against multiresistant bacteria. Vila, J., Sánchez-Céspedes, J., Sierra, J.M., Piqueras, M., Nicolás, E., Freixas, J., Giralt, E. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Illegitimate recombination mediated in vitro by DNA gyrase of Escherichia coli: structure of recombinant DNA molecules. Ikeda, H., Aoki, K., Naito, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of DNA gyrase activity in an in vitro transcription-translation system stimulates gyrA expression in a DNA concentration dependent manner. Evidence for the involvement of factors which may be titrated. Carty, M., Menzel, R. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene and characterization of quinolone resistance mutations. Wang, Y., Huang, W.M., Taylor, D.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of fecal Escherichia coli isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: results from a large hospital-based surveillance initiative. Lautenbach, E., Fishman, N.O., Metlay, J.P., Mao, X., Bilker, W.B., Tolomeo, P., Nachamkin, I. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Escherichia coli regulatory mutation affecting lysine transport and lysine decarboxylase. Popkin, P.S., Maas, W.K. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Novel gyrA point mutation in a strain of Escherichia coli resistant to fluoroquinolones but not to nalidixic acid. Cambau, E., Bordon, F., Collatz, E., Gutmann, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Antagonism of wild-type and resistant Escherichia coli and its DNA gyrase by the tricyclic 4-quinolone analogs ofloxacin and S-25930 stereoisomers. Wolfson, J.S., Hooper, D.C., Ng, E.Y., Souza, K.S., McHugh, G.L., Swartz, M.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. In vitro plasmid-encoded resistance to quinolones. Gómez-Gómez, J.M., Blázquez, J., Espinosa De Los Monteros, L.E., Baquero, M.R., Baquero, F., Martínez, J.L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. A simple microbiological assay for the stereospecific differentiation of alpha and beta isomers of arteether. Santha Kumar, T.R., Khanuja, S.P., Jain, D.C., Srivastava, S., Bhattacharya, A.K., Sharma, R.P., Kumar, S. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning of the gyrA and gyrB genes of Bacteroides fragilis encoding DNA gyrase. Onodera, Y., Sato, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
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