The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

OLFM4  -  olfactomedin 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Antiapoptotic protein GW112, G-CSF-stimulated clone 1 protein, GC1, GW112, OLM4, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of OLFM4

  • OLFM4 mRNA was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues [1].
  • On comparing paired samples, the expression of OLFM4 mRNA was observed to be elevated in 90, 69 and 85% of colon, breast and lung cancer tissues, respectively [2].
  • Positivity for OLFM4 mRNA, defined as the mean + 2 SD in non-cancerous colon and breast tissues, was observed in 68 and 50% of the studied colon and breast cancer tissues [2].
  • Unlike the well-studied class C ES beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae GC1, the Omega-loop does not affect the active site conformation and the catalytic activity of CMY-10 [3].
  • The fold of DAA is similar to that of the penicillin-recognizing proteins, especially d-alanyl-d-alanine-carboxypeptidase from Streptomyces R61, and class C beta-lactamase from Entereobacter cloacae strain GC1 [4].
  • Our findings indicate that hGC-1 is involved in colon cancer adhesion and metastasis, and that hGC-1 may be a useful marker for tumor differentiation and progression of human colon carcinoma [5].

High impact information on OLFM4

  • We show that the GCAP1(Y99C) mutant and native GCAP1 are highly effective in stimulation of photoreceptor GC1 [6].
  • Functionally, GW112 could significantly attenuate the ability of GRIM19 to mediate retinoic acid-IFN-beta-mediated cellular apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression [7].
  • We show here that GW112 is associated with GRIM-19, a protein known to be involved in regulating cellular apoptosis [7].
  • Taken together, our data suggest that GW112 is an important regulator of cell death that plays important roles in tumor cell survival and tumor growth [7].
  • The 1560 nucleotides including the GC1 beta-lactamase gene were sequenced, and the amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme comprising 364 amino acids was deduced [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of OLFM4

  • Using hGC-1 purified from baculovirus Sf9 cells we demonstrated that hGC-1 is a secreted glycoprotein containing N-linked carbohydrate chains and forms disulfide-bonded multimers [9].

Biological context of OLFM4


Anatomical context of OLFM4

  • Of these, Reg 1alpha and GW112 were the dominant species and expression of these genes was confined to the crypt epithelium [10].
  • Olfactomedin-like genes show characteristic tissue-restricted patterns of expression; the specific tissues expressing these genes differ among the family members. hGC-1 was strongly expressed in the prostate, small intestine, and colon, moderately expressed in the bone marrow and stomach, and not detectable in other tissues [12].
  • This factor, which we have named GC1, is undetectable in nuclear extracts of non-rGH-producing rat fibroblast (Rat-2), or HeLa cells [13].

Associations of OLFM4 with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS: Selective expression of Reg 1alpha and GW112 genes in the crypt epithelium of inflamed colonic mucosa suggests the important regulatory functions of these genes [10].
  • In vitro translation and ex vivo expression showed hGC-1 to be an N-linked glycoprotein [12].
  • However, cysteine residues at 83, 85, 246 and 437 are essential for secretion, and cysteine 226 is critical for hGC-1 multimer formation [9].
  • The chemical complementation system was first shown to be able to distinguish between the wild-type (wt) class C beta-lactamase P99 and the clinically isolated extended-spectrum class C beta-lactamase GC1 in the presence of cefotaxime [14].

Physical interactions of OLFM4

  • Induction of olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4(GW112/hGC-1)) in cancer cells was recently reported to have a novel antiapoptotic action via binding to the potent apoptosis inducer GRIM-19 [1].

Regulatory relationships of OLFM4


Other interactions of OLFM4

  • Identification and characterization of a novel member of olfactomedin-related protein family, hGC-1, expressed during myeloid lineage development [12].
  • One clone specifically induced by G-CSF, hGC-1, was characterized [12].
  • MIA and GW112 were overexpressed in 10 (25%) and 22 (55%) of 40 GC samples, and the overexpression of these two genes was associated with tumor stage, respectively [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of OLFM4

  • Since the discovery in 1977 that the GC1 gene could be resolved into two common subcomponents on an isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel, a large number of ethnic groups have been screened to analyze the extent of genetic variation in human populations [16].
  • A class C beta-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae strain GC1 with improved hydrolytic activity for oxyimino beta-lactam antibiotics has been analyzed by X-ray crystallography to 1.8 A resolution [17].


  1. Olfactomedin 4 promotes S-phase transition in proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Kobayashi, D., Koshida, S., Moriai, R., Tsuji, N., Watanabe, N. Cancer Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific overexpression of OLFM4(GW112/HGC-1) mRNA in colon, breast and lung cancer tissues detected using quantitative analysis. Koshida, S., Kobayashi, D., Moriai, R., Tsuji, N., Watanabe, N. Cancer Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Structural basis for the extended substrate spectrum of CMY-10, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase. Kim, J.Y., Jung, H.I., An, Y.J., Lee, J.H., Kim, S.J., Jeong, S.H., Lee, K.J., Suh, P.G., Lee, H.S., Lee, S.H., Cha, S.S. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of a D-Stereospecific Amino Acid Amidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi SV3, a New Member of the Penicillin-recognizing Proteins. Okazaki, S., Suzuki, A., Komeda, H., Yamaguchi, S., Asano, Y., Yamane, T. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced hGC-1 protein expression is associated with malignant progression of colon carcinoma. Liu, W., Liu, Y., Zhu, J., Wright, E., Ding, I., Rodgers, G.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. GCAP1 (Y99C) mutant is constitutively active in autosomal dominant cone dystrophy. Sokal, I., Li, N., Surgucheva, I., Warren, M.J., Payne, A.M., Bhattacharya, S.S., Baehr, W., Palczewski, K. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. GW112, a novel antiapoptotic protein that promotes tumor growth. Zhang, X., Huang, Q., Yang, Z., Li, Y., Li, C.Y. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular evolution of a class C beta-lactamase extending its substrate specificity. Nukaga, M., Haruta, S., Tanimoto, K., Kogure, K., Taniguchi, K., Tamaki, M., Sawai, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The glycoprotein hGC-1 binds to cadherin and lectins. Liu, W., Chen, L., Zhu, J., Rodgers, G.P. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Upregulation of Reg 1alpha and GW112 in the epithelium of inflamed colonic mucosa. Shinozaki, S., Nakamura, T., Iimura, M., Kato, Y., Iizuka, B., Kobayashi, M., Hayashi, N. Gut (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular analysis of the gene for the human vitamin-D-binding protein (group-specific component): allelic differences of the common genetic GC types. Braun, A., Bichlmaier, R., Cleve, H. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and characterization of a novel member of olfactomedin-related protein family, hGC-1, expressed during myeloid lineage development. Zhang, J., Liu, W.L., Tang, D.C., Chen, L., Wang, M., Pack, S.D., Zhuang, Z., Rodgers, G.P. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A pituitary-specific factor interacts with an upstream promotor element in the rat growth hormone gene. Catanzaro, D.F., West, B.L., Baxter, J.D., Reudelhuber, T.L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Investigation of the mechanism of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins by class C beta-lactamases by using chemical complementation. Carter, B.T., Lin, H., Goldberg, S.D., Althoff, E.A., Raushel, J., Cornish, V.W. Chembiochem (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Genes involved in invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer identified by array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression. Oue, N., Aung, P.P., Mitani, Y., Kuniyasu, H., Nakayama, H., Yasui, W. Oncology (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Ethnic variation in vitamin D-binding protein (GC): a review of isoelectric focusing studies in human populations. Kamboh, M.I., Ferrell, R.E. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure of the extended-spectrum class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae GC1, a natural mutant with a tandem tripeptide insertion. Crichlow, G.V., Kuzin, A.P., Nukaga, M., Mayama, K., Sawai, T., Knox, J.R. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities