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Gene Review

PROKR1  -  prokineticin receptor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G-protein coupled receptor 73, G-protein coupled receptor ZAQ, GPR73, GPR73a, PK-R1, ...
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Disease relevance of PROKR1

  • Stress conditions such as serum withdrawal, TNF-alpha, and hypoxia markedly increased PK-R2 expression, whereas mRNA levels of PK-R1 remained unchanged [1].
  • Replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts: protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms for controlling HCV RNA replication and mediating interferon activities [2].
  • Replication of the m142 and m143 knockout mutants was partially restored by expression of the human cytomegalovirus TRS1 gene, a known double-stranded-RNA-binding protein that inhibits PKR activation [3].
  • In this study, normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NHKs) transfected stably with the HPV 31 or 16 genomes and cell lines expressing the HPV 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins were used to examine effects on the PKR pathway [4].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A partial red blood cell (RBC) pyruvate-kinase (PK-R) deficiency was found in a patient with concomitant hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and chronic hemolytic anemia [5].

High impact information on PROKR1

  • Global protein synthesis was impaired in these cells, which correlated with phosphorylation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) and its target protein, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha, suggesting that m142 and m143 are necessary to block the PKR-mediated shutdown of protein synthesis [3].
  • PKR, an interferon-induced double-stranded RNA activated serine-threonine kinase, is a component of signal transduction pathways mediating cell growth control and responses to stress and viral infection [6].
  • In this report, we show that PKs not only stimulate Ca(2+) mobilization but also induce cAMP accumulation in PKR-expressing cells [7].
  • There was no temporal variation in expression of PK2, PKR1, or PKR2 [8].
  • The displacement of specific binding by GTP gamma S suggests that the prokineticin receptor may belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors [9].

Biological context of PROKR1


Anatomical context of PROKR1


Associations of PROKR1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of PROKR1

  • Prokineticins (PKs), multifunctional secreted proteins, activate two endogenous G protein-coupled receptors (R) termed PK-R1 and PK-R2 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PROKR1


  1. Prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and BV8) in the bovine ovary: expression and role as mitogens and survival factors for corpus luteum-derived endothelial cells. Kisliouk, T., Podlovni, H., Spanel-Borowski, K., Ovadia, O., Zhou, Q.Y., Meidan, R. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts: protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms for controlling HCV RNA replication and mediating interferon activities. Chang, K.S., Cai, Z., Zhang, C., Sen, G.C., Williams, B.R., Luo, G. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Murine Cytomegalovirus m142 and m143 Are both Required To Block Protein Kinase R-Mediated Shutdown of Protein Synthesis. Valchanova, R.S., Picard-Maureau, M., Budt, M., Brune, W. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Human papillomaviruses target the double-stranded RNA protein kinase pathway. Hebner, C.M., Wilson, R., Rader, J., Bidder, M., Laimins, L.A. J. Gen. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Co-existence of hereditary spherocytosis and a new red cell pyruvate kinase variant: PK mallorca. Zarza, R., Moscardó, M., Alvarez, R., García, J., Morey, M., Pujades, A., Vives-Corrons, J.L. Haematologica (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynamic flexibility of double-stranded RNA activated PKR in solution. Gabel, F., Wang, D., Madern, D., Sadler, A., Dayie, K., Daryoush, M.Z., Schwahn, D., Zaccai, G., Lee, X., Williams, B.R. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification and pharmacological characterization of prokineticin 2 beta as a selective ligand for prokineticin receptor 1. Chen, J., Kuei, C., Sutton, S., Wilson, S., Yu, J., Kamme, F., Mazur, C., Lovenberg, T., Liu, C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression and regulation of the prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and Bv8) and their receptors in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle. Battersby, S., Critchley, H.O., Morgan, K., Millar, R.P., Jabbour, H.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of two prokineticin cDNAs: recombinant proteins potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Li, M., Bullock, C.M., Knauer, D.J., Ehlert, F.J., Zhou, Q.Y. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of prokineticin receptors. Soga, T., Matsumoto, S., Oda, T., Saito, T., Hiyama, H., Takasaki, J., Kamohara, M., Ohishi, T., Matsushime, H., Furuichi, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Y-receptor-like genes GPR72 and GPR73: molecular cloning, genomic organisation and assignment to human chromosome 11q21.1 and 2p14 and mouse chromosome 9 and 6. Parker, R., Liu, M., Eyre, H.J., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Crawford, J., Sutherland, G.R., Jenkins, N.A., Herzog, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Combinatorial treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers with gefitinib and Ad.mda-7 enhances apoptosis-induction and reverses resistance to a single therapy. Emdad, L., Lebedeva, I.V., Su, Z.Z., Gupta, P., Sarkar, D., Settleman, J., Fisher, P.B. J. Cell. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in human peri-implantation endometrium, but not in endometrial carcinoma. Ngan, E.S., Lee, K.Y., Yeung, W.S., Ngan, H.Y., Ng, E.H., Ho, P.C. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of prokineticin receptors by endothelial cells derived from different vascular beds: a physiological basis for distinct endothelial function. Podlovni, H., Ovadia, O., Kisliouk, T., Klipper, E., Zhou, Q.Y., Friedman, A., Alfaidy, N., Meidan, R. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The genetic system of the L-type pyruvate kinase forms in man. Subunit structure, interrelation and kinetic characteristics of the pyruvate kinase enzymes from erythrocytes and liver. Kahn, A., Marie, J., Garreau, H., Sprengers, E.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. The endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF)/prokineticin 1 and 2 and receptor expression in human prostate: Up-regulation of EG-VEGF/prokineticin 1 with malignancy. Pasquali, D., Rossi, V., Staibano, S., De Rosa, G., Chieffi, P., Prezioso, D., Mirone, V., Mascolo, M., Tramontano, D., Bellastella, A., Sinisi, A.A. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Exogenous sphingomyelinase increases collagen and sulphated glycosaminoglycan production by primary articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study. Gilbert, S.J., Blain, E.J., Jones, P., Duance, V.C., Mason, D.J. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Binding and Nuclear Relocalization of Protein Kinase R by Human Cytomegalovirus TRS1. Hakki, M., Marshall, E.E., De Niro, K.L., Geballe, A.P. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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