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Gene Review

ipt  -  isopentenyl transferase

Agrobacterium fabrum str. C58

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Disease relevance of ipt

  • Overexpression of the isopentenyltransferase gene (ipt) from the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens increases cytokinin levels, leading to generation of shoots from transformed plant cells [1].

High impact information on ipt


Chemical compound and disease context of ipt


Biological context of ipt

  • An ipt promoter::cat reporter gene fusion showed a 10-fold increase in ipt promoter activity in A. tumefaciens ros mutant strains when compared with wild type [3].
  • Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones that play a critical role in plant growth and development. sob5-D, an activation-tagging mutant, shows phenotypes typical of transgenic plants expressing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens isopentenyltransferase (ipt) gene that encodes the enzyme catalyzing the first step of cytokinin biosynthesis [7].
  • Although PTGS has proven effective against a variety of target genes, we found that a much higher percentage of transgenic lines silenced iaaM than ipt, suggesting that transgene sequences influenced the effectiveness of PTGS [8].
  • Promoter tagging with a promoterless ipt gene leads to cytokinin-induced phenotypic variability in transgenic tobacco plants:implications of gene dosage effects [9].
  • Expression of ipt, a cytokinin biosynthetic gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, under the control of the promoter from a senescence-associated gene (SAG12) has been one approach used to delay senescence [10].

Associations of ipt with chemical compounds

  • Tobacco plants have been transformed with a T-DNA construct harboring a promoterless cytokinin-synthesizing ipt gene close to the right T-DNA border [9].
  • The WHR TA-region resembles the biotype I octopine region, whereas the LHR TA-region is a recent deletion derivative of the WHR TA-region, which lacks the iaa genes and part of the ipt gene [11].
  • In high light (300 mumol PPFD m-2 s-1), ipt mRNA was detected and zeatin/zeatin glucoside levels were 10-fold higher than in control plants or when transformants were grown in low light (30 mumol PPFD m-2 s-1) [12].
  • Although exogenous benzyladenine did not directly affect ipt gene expression, it did antagonize the effect of auxin on levels of cytokinins and IPT mRNA and protein [13].
  • Also, increased levels (10- to 20-fold) of isopentenyl adenosine, the product of the reaction catalyzed by isopentenyl transferase, were detected in ros mutant strains [3].

Other interactions of ipt

  • The virD2 and ipt primer pairs did not interfere with each other when included in the same PCR amplification, and this permitted simultaneous detection of both genes in a single reaction [14].
  • To test whether increased endogenous cytokinin accumulation led to NaCl stress symptoms, the gene ipt from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, encoding isopentenyl transferase, was transformed into Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR-1 under the control of the light-inducible rbcS-3A promoter from pea [12].
  • Sequence analysis of the 4.7 kb right part of this fragment allowed us to identify the pTi82.139 ipt, 6b and nos coding sequences. pTi82.139 lacks the 6a gene, which lies between the ipt and 6b genes in pTiC58 [15].
  • To test its biological activity, the Tm-4 ipt gene was inserted into a specially constructed, disarmed Ti vector lacking tzs and tested on tobacco, where the rearranged ipt gene induced shoot formation [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ipt


  1. Inducible isopentenyl transferase as a high-efficiency marker for plant transformation. Kunkel, T., Niu, Q.W., Chan, Y.S., Chua, N.H. Nat. Biotechnol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing confers resistance to crown gall tumorigenesis. Escobar, M.A., Civerolo, E.L., Summerfelt, K.R., Dandekar, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Agrobacterium transcriptional regulator Ros is a prokaryotic zinc finger protein that regulates the plant oncogene ipt. Chou, A.Y., Archdeacon, J., Kado, C.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation tagging identifies a gene from Petunia hybrida responsible for the production of active cytokinins in plants. Zubko, E., Adams, C.J., Macháèková, I., Malbeck, J., Scollan, C., Meyer, P. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence of the iaa and ipt region of different Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype III octopine strains: reconstruction of octopine Ti plasmid evolution. Paulus, F., Canaday, J., Vincent, F., Bonnard, G., Kares, C., Otten, L. Plant Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterisation and immunolocation of an 87 kDa polypeptide associated with UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase activity from differentiating tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Wheatley, E.R., Davies, D.R., Bolwell, G.P. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Over-expression of SOB5 suggests the involvement of a novel plant protein in cytokinin-mediated development. Zhang, J., Wrage, E.L., Vankova, R., Malbeck, J., Neff, M.M. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Translation start sequences affect the efficiency of silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes. Lee, H., Humann, J.L., Pitrak, J.S., Cuperus, J.T., Parks, T.D., Whistler, C.A., Mok, M.C., Ream, L.W. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Promoter tagging with a promoterless ipt gene leads to cytokinin-induced phenotypic variability in transgenic tobacco plants:implications of gene dosage effects. Hewelt, A., Prinsen, E., Schell, J., Van Onckelen, H., Schmülling, T. Plant J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Overproduction of cytokinins in petunia flowers transformed with P(SAG12)-IPT delays corolla senescence and decreases sensitivity to ethylene. Chang, H., Jones, M.L., Banowetz, G.M., Clark, D.G. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Limited host range Ti plasmids: recent origin from wide host range Ti plasmids and involvement of a novel IS element, IS868. Paulus, F., Canaday, J., Otten, L. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Light-induced expression of ipt from Agrobacterium tumefaciens results in cytokinin accumulation and osmotic stress symptoms in transgenic tobacco. Thomas, J.C., Smigocki, A.C., Bohnert, H.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of the isopentenyl transferase gene is regulated by auxin in transgenic tobacco tissues. Zhang, X.D., Letham, D.S., Zhang, R., Higgins, T.J. Transgenic Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains. Haas, J.H., Moore, L.W., Ream, W., Manulis, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Oncogene arrangement in a shooty strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Drevet, C., Brasileiro, A.C., Jouanin, L. Plant Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Nucleotide sequence, evolutionary origin and biological role of a rearranged cytokinin gene isolated from a wide host range biotype III Agrobacterium strain. Bonnard, G., Tinland, B., Paulus, F., Szegedi, E., Otten, L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytokinin content and tissue distribution in plants transformed by a reconstructed isopentenyl transferase gene. Smigocki, A.C. Plant Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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