The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Gdf11  -  growth differentiation factor 11

Mus musculus

Synonyms: BMP-11, Bmp11, Bone morphogenetic protein 11, GDF-11, Growth/differentiation factor 11
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on Gdf11

  • During early mouse embryogenesis, Gdf11 is expressed in the primitive streak and tail bud regions, which are sites where new mesodermal cells are generated [1].
  • Mutant embryos show alterations in patterns of Hox gene expression, suggesting that Gdf11 acts upstream of the Hox genes [1].
  • The effect of the mutation is dose dependent, as Gdf11+/- mice have a milder phenotype than Gdf11-/- mice [1].
  • Homozygous mutant mice carrying a targeted deletion of Gdf11 exhibit anteriorly directed homeotic transformations throughout the axial skeleton and posterior displacement of the hindlimbs [1].
  • This negative autoregulatory action of GDF11 is strikingly like that of its homolog, GDF8/myostatin, in skeletal muscle, suggesting that similar strategies establish and maintain proper cell number during neural and muscular development [2].

Biological context of Gdf11


Anatomical context of Gdf11


Associations of Gdf11 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Gdf11

  • Thus, our studies reveal mechanisms by which GDF11 regulates the production and maturation of islet progenitor cells in pancreas development [8].
  • In addition, GDF11 induced the expression of its own antagonist follistatin, indicating that the activity of GFD11 may be limited by a negative feedback mechanism [7].

Other interactions of Gdf11

  • The mature carboxyl-terminal domain encoded by Gdf11 is most closely related to Gdf8, being 90% identical to the mouse gene [5].
  • The addition of Gdnf protein to urogenital tracts taken from Gdf11 null embryos induced ectopic ureteric bud formation along the Wolffian duct [4].
  • We have cloned and characterized a new member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor beta (BMP/TGFbeta) superfamily, growth differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), from rat incisor pulp RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers [5].
  • Gdf11 and Bmp4 are essential for outgrowth and positioning of the ureteric bud, the inducer of metanephric mesenchyme [10].
  • Mice lacking functional GDF11 have more progenitors and neurons in the OE, whereas mice lacking follistatin, a GDF11 antagonist, show dramatically decreased neurogenesis [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gdf11


  1. Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. McPherron, A.C., Lawler, A.M., Lee, S.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11. Wu, H.H., Ivkovic, S., Murray, R.C., Jaramillo, S., Lyons, K.M., Johnson, J.E., Calof, A.L. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The function of growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) in rostrocaudal patterning of the developing spinal cord. Liu, J.P. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of metanephric kidney development by growth/differentiation factor 11. Esquela, A.F., Lee, S.J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of growth/differentiation factor 11, a new member of the BMP/TGFbeta superfamily during mouse embryogenesis. Nakashima, M., Toyono, T., Akamine, A., Joyner, A. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of the growth-differentiation factor 11 gene by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A and repression by HDAC3. Zhang, X., Wharton, W., Yuan, Z., Tsai, S.C., Olashaw, N., Seto, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Gdf11 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and myogenesis in the developing chick limb. Gamer, L.W., Cox, K.A., Small, C., Rosen, V. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development. Harmon, E.B., Apelqvist, A.A., Smart, N.G., Gu, X., Osborne, D.H., Kim, S.K. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Assigning the positional identity of spinal motor neurons: rostrocaudal patterning of Hox-c expression by FGFs, Gdf11, and retinoids. Liu, J.P., Laufer, E., Jessell, T.M. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. TGFbeta superfamily signals are required for morphogenesis of the kidney mesenchyme progenitor population. Oxburgh, L., Chu, G.C., Michael, S.K., Robertson, E.J. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts by electroporation-mediated gene delivery of growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11). Nakashima, M., Mizunuma, K., Murakami, T., Akamine, A. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of pancreatic endocrine development in GDF11-deficient mice. Dichmann, D.S., Yassin, H., Serup, P. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The isolation, characterization, and expression of a novel GDF11 gene and a second myostatin form in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biga, P.R., Roberts, S.B., Iliev, D.B., McCauley, L.A., Moon, J.S., Collodi, P., Goetz, F.W. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities