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Gene Review

DAO  -  D-amino-acid oxidase

Homo sapiens

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Psychiatry related information on DAO

  • Our aim was to replicate this finding in German schizophrenic patients and to assess whether G72 and DAAO might also contribute to the development of bipolar affective disorder [1].

High impact information on DAO

  • The presence of D-amino acid oxidase has been histochemically confirmed in the epithelial cells selected from renal cell suspensions and explants [2].
  • In this medium, D-valine is substituted for L-valine; and only those cells containing D-amino acid oxidase can convert the D-amino acid into its essential L-enantiomer [2].
  • Fibroblasts will not grow in the selective medium, but will proliferate normally if the product of the D-amino acid oxidase reaction is supplied [2].
  • Localization of D-amino acid oxidase on the cell surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes [3].
  • DAOC deacylation is carried out by two final enzymatic bioconversions catalyzed by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and glutaryl acylase (GLA) yielding 7-ADCA [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of DAO


Biological context of DAO


Anatomical context of DAO

  • Human DAO was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and its activity was measured as the amount of hydrogen peroxide detected in the growth medium following feeding the cells with D-serine [10].Associations of DAO with chemical compounds
  • The overall dimeric structure of human DAO is similar to porcine DAO, and the catalytic residues are fully conserved at the re-face of the flavin ring [7].
  • We recently succeeded in purifying human DAO, and found that it weakly binds FAD and shows a significant slower rate of flavin reduction compared with porcine DAO [7].
  • To address this issue, we determined the crystal structure of human DAO in complex with a competitive inhibitor benzoate, at a resolution of 2.5 A [7].
  • DAAO is expressed in human brain where it oxidizes d-serine, a potent activator of N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor [11].
  • The isolation of the pure L-amino acid isomer from the enantiomeric mixture, initially obtained using either an open or closed reaction vessel, was achieved using a D-amino acid oxidase/catalase enzyme complex immobilized on a Sepharose support [12].

Other interactions of DAO


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DAO


  1. Examination of G72 and D-amino-acid oxidase as genetic risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Schumacher, J., Jamra, R.A., Freudenberg, J., Becker, T., Ohlraun, S., Otte, A.C., Tullius, M., Kovalenko, S., Bogaert, A.V., Maier, W., Rietschel, M., Propping, P., Nöthen, M.M., Cichon, S. Mol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. D-valine as a selective agent for normal human and rodent epithelial cells in culture. Gilbert, S.F., Migeon, B.R. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of D-amino acid oxidase on the cell surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Robinson, J.M., Briggs, R.T., Karnovsky, M.J. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Environmentally safe production of 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) using recombinant strains of Acremonium chrysogenum. Velasco, J., Luis Adrio, J., Angel Moreno, M., Díez, B., Soler, G., Barredo, J.L. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Some aspects of proximal tubular sodium chloride reabsorption in Necturus kidney. Whittembury, G., Diezi, F., Diezi, J., Spring, K., Giebisch, G. Kidney Int. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Enzymological characterization of a feline analogue of primary hyperoxaluria type 2: a model for the human disease. Danpure, C.J., Jennings, P.R., Mistry, J., Chalmers, R.A., McKerrell, R.E., Blakemore, W.F., Heath, M.F. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Crystal structure of human D-amino acid oxidase: Context-dependent variability of the backbone conformation of the VAAGL hydrophobic stretch located at the si-face of the flavin ring. Kawazoe, T., Tsuge, H., Pilone, M.S., Fukui, K. Protein Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding human kidney D-amino acid oxidase. Momoi, K., Fukui, K., Watanabe, F., Miyake, Y. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Assignment of D-amino-acid oxidase gene to a human and a mouse chromosome. Konno, R. Amino Acids (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A cell-based ultra-high-throughput screening assay for identifying inhibitors of D-amino acid oxidase. Brandish, P.E., Chiu, C.S., Schneeweis, J., Brandon, N.J., Leech, C.L., Kornienko, O., Scolnick, E.M., Strulovici, B., Zheng, W. Journal of biomolecular screening : the official journal of the Society for Biomolecular Screening. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic and physiological data implicating the new human gene G72 and the gene for D-amino acid oxidase in schizophrenia. Chumakov, I., Blumenfeld, M., Guerassimenko, O., Cavarec, L., Palicio, M., Abderrahim, H., Bougueleret, L., Barry, C., Tanaka, H., La Rosa, P., Puech, A., Tahri, N., Cohen-Akenine, A., Delabrosse, S., Lissarrague, S., Picard, F.P., Maurice, K., Essioux, L., Millasseau, P., Grel, P., Debailleul, V., Simon, A.M., Caterina, D., Dufaure, I., Malekzadeh, K., Belova, M., Luan, J.J., Bouillot, M., Sambucy, J.L., Primas, G., Saumier, M., Boubkiri, N., Martin-Saumier, S., Nasroune, M., Peixoto, H., Delaye, A., Pinchot, V., Bastucci, M., Guillou, S., Chevillon, M., Sainz-Fuertes, R., Meguenni, S., Aurich-Costa, J., Cherif, D., Gimalac, A., Van Duijn, C., Gauvreau, D., Ouellette, G., Fortier, I., Raelson, J., Sherbatich, T., Riazanskaia, N., Rogaev, E., Raeymaekers, P., Aerssens, J., Konings, F., Luyten, W., Macciardi, F., Sham, P.C., Straub, R.E., Weinberger, D.R., Cohen, N., Cohen, D., Ouelette, G., Realson, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. L-[1-11C]leucine: routine synthesis by enzymatic resolution. Barrio, J.R., Keen, R.E., Ropchan, J.R., MacDonald, N.S., Baumgartner, F.J., Padgett, H.C., Phelps, M.E. J. Nucl. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Ketamine enhances the expression of serine racemase and D-amino acid oxidase mRNAs in rat brain. Takeyama, K., Yoshikawa, M., Oka, T., Kawaguchi, M., Suzuki, T., Hashimoto, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression and cytotoxicity of EGFP-labeled D-amino acid oxidase in HeLa cells. He, Z.Y., Jiang, Q.L., Chen, Y.X., Wen, L.M., Yao, Y.C., Wang, X.M., Li, W.L., Wang, J.M., Hu, Y.P. Yi Chuan Xue Bao (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Genome-based drug discovery: prioritizing disease-susceptibility/disease-associated genes as novel drug targets for schizophrenia. Williams, M. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000) (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. A CSF and postmortem brain study of d-serine metabolic parameters in schizophrenia. Bendikov, I., Nadri, C., Amar, S., Panizzutti, R., De Miranda, J., Wolosker, H., Agam, G. Schizophr. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human gene encoding D-amino-acid oxidase. Fukui, K., Miyake, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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