The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TIMM8A  -  translocase of inner mitochondrial...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DDP, DDP1, DFN1, Deafness dystonia protein 1, MTS, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TIMM8A


Psychiatry related information on TIMM8A

  • We now report small deletions in this candidate gene in the original DFN-1/MTS family, and in a family with deafness, dystonia and mental deficiency but not blindness [6].
  • Method: Fifty-four parents were assessed for their experiences during hospitalization and by questionnaires regarding grief (MTS), post-traumatic growth, affective symptoms and the visual representation of the baby and the self of the parents (PRISM) [7].
  • Cognitive tests included visual information processing, match-to-sample visual search (MTS) and simple and choice reaction times [8].

High impact information on TIMM8A

  • This gene, named DDP (deafness/ dystonia peptide), shows high levels of expression in fetal and adult brain [6].
  • In 1960, progressive sensorineural deafness (McKusick 304,700, DFN-1) was shown to be X-linked based on a description of a large Norwegian pedigree [6].
  • A novel X-linked gene, DDP, shows mutations in families with deafness (DFN-1), dystonia, mental deficiency and blindness [6].
  • Cross-resistance between cisplatin (DDP) and metalloid salts in human cells was sought on the basis that mechanisms that mediate metalloid salt cross-resistance in prokaryotes are evolutionarily conserved [9].
  • Two ovarian and two head and neck carcinoma cell lines selected for DDP resistance were found to be cross-resistant to antimony potassium tartrate, which contains trivalent antimony [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of TIMM8A

  • A twofold change in the cisplatin (DDP) sensitivity of 2008 human ovarian carcinoma cells is sufficient to reduce tumor response in vivo [10].
  • A platinum(II) and 3 platinum(IV) ammine/cycloalkylamine homologous series were evaluated for cytotoxicity and biochemical pharmacology in murine leukemia L1210/0, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)- resistant L1210/DDP, and diaminocyclohexaneplatinum-resistant L1210/1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) cells [11].
  • CONCLUSION: The activity of this regimen is in the range reported for single agents or DTIC plus DDP, and the addition of BCNU and Tam appears to increase toxicity [12].
  • The addition of the antifol methotrexate to cisplatin (DDP) produces supraadditive antitumor effects in preclinical studies, but in the clinic this combination of two nephrotoxic drugs is limited by excessive toxicity [13].
  • RESULTS: Numerous articles have reported an overall response rate of 47% (95% confidence limit, 39.25 to 54.75) when patients with metastatic melanoma are treated with the combination of dacarbazine (DTIC), carmustine (BCNU), cisplatin (DDP), and TAM (DBDT) [14].

Biological context of TIMM8A


Anatomical context of TIMM8A

  • A lymphoblast cell line derived from an MTS patient had decreased NADH levels and defects in mitochondrial protein import [17].
  • Thus, insufficient NADH shuttling, linked with changes in Ca2+ concentration, in sensitive cells of the central nervous system might contribute to the pathologic process associated with MTS [17].
  • DDP1 tagged with FLAG localized in mitochondria and cytoplasm of COS7 cells [3].
  • The Mohr-Tranebjaerg-Jensen deafness-dystonia-optic atrophy protein DDP/TIMM8a is translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes but targeted ultimately to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it is involved in mitochondrial protein import [18].
  • Neuronal cell death in the visual cortex is a prominent feature of the X-linked recessive mitochondrial deafness-dystonia syndrome caused by mutations in the TIMM8a gene [19].

Associations of TIMM8A with chemical compounds

  • We describe a novel guanine deletion at nucleotide 108 of the DDP gene in a family with Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, which terminates this 97-amino acid protein at codon 25 [20].
  • The mutation affects the ATG start codon, thereby changing methionine to isoleucine (M1I), and leads to a complete absence of the DDP1 protein [21].
  • The effect of enalapril on EPC mobilization could be substantially blocked by Diprotin-A, a DDP IV antagonist [22].
  • DDP coordinates Zn(2+), and Zn(2+) was found to stimulate the DDP-STAM1 interaction in vitro [18].
  • Neither bombesin nor TNF alpha changed the accumulation of DDP, glutathione content, or glutathione-S-transferase activity in 2008 cells [10].

Physical interactions of TIMM8A

  • Thus, DDP binding may alter the interactions of STAM1 with several cytoplasmic proteins involved in cell signaling and endosomal trafficking [18].

Other interactions of TIMM8A

  • Dystonia with and without deafness is caused by TIMM8A mutation [23].
  • Previously reported mutations in the DDP gene have all been frameshifts/nonsense mutations or deletion of the entire gene as part of a larger deletion encompassing the BTK gene [5].
  • In addition, the partner protein Tim13 was found to be significantly reduced, suggesting that Tim13 requires the presence of DDP1 for its stabilization [21].
  • Thus, the DDP-STAM1 interaction likely occurs in the cytoplasm or at the mitochondrial outer membrane [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TIMM8A

  • Northern blot analysis suggests that mouse DDP1 expresses ubiquitously [3].
  • Sequence analysis of the patient's DDP1 gene revealed a G to C transversion at nucleotide position 38 of the first exon [21].
  • We report here a direct interaction between DDP and STAM1, identified by yeast two-hybrid screening and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, fusion protein "pull downs," and nuclear redistribution assays [18].
  • The effects of cyclophosphamide (Cy), doxorubicin (Dx), cisplatin (DDP), melphalan (L-PAM), and vincristine (VCR) on various human and animal tumor lines with different growth rates, growing as xenografts in NMRI (nu/nu) mice, were studied [24].
  • Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) has been shown to provide protection against most clinically significant toxic effects from cisplatin (DDP) without inhibiting tumor response in a variety of murine animal models [25].


  1. The C66W mutation in the deafness dystonia peptide 1 (DDP1) affects the formation of functional DDP1.TIM13 complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Hofmann, S., Rothbauer, U., Mühlenbein, N., Neupert, W., Gerbitz, K.D., Brunner, M., Bauer, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The human family of Deafness/Dystonia peptide (DDP) related mitochondrial import proteins. Jin, H., Kendall, E., Freeman, T.C., Roberts, R.G., Vetrie, D.L. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and expression of mouse deafness dystonia peptide 1 cDNA. Nakane, T., Inada, Y., Ito, F., Itoh, N., Tazawa, S., Chiba, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Human deafness dystonia syndrome is a mitochondrial disease. Koehler, C.M., Leuenberger, D., Merchant, S., Renold, A., Junne, T., Schatz, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. A de novo missense mutation in a critical domain of the X-linked DDP gene causes the typical deafness-dystonia-optic atrophy syndrome. Tranebjaerg, L., Hamel, B.C., Gabreels, F.J., Renier, W.O., Van Ghelue, M. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel X-linked gene, DDP, shows mutations in families with deafness (DFN-1), dystonia, mental deficiency and blindness. Jin, H., May, M., Tranebjaerg, L., Kendall, E., Fontán, G., Jackson, J., Subramony, S.H., Arena, F., Lubs, H., Smith, S., Stevenson, R., Schwartz, C., Vetrie, D. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Grief and post-traumatic growth in parents 2-6 years after the death of their extremely premature baby. Buchi, S., Morgeli, H., Schnyder, U., Jenewein, J., Hepp, U., Jina, E., Neuhaus, R., Fauchère, J.C., Bucher, H.U., Sensky, T. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential responsiveness to caffeine and perceived effects of caffeine in moderate and high regular caffeine consumers. Attwood, A.S., Higgs, S., Terry, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Cross-resistance between cisplatin, antimony potassium tartrate, and arsenite in human tumor cells. Naredi, P., Heath, D.D., Enns, R.E., Howell, S.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of cisplatin sensitivity and growth rate of an ovarian carcinoma cell line by bombesin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Isonishi, S., Jekunen, A.P., Hom, D.K., Eastman, A., Edelstein, P.S., Thiebaut, F.B., Christen, R.D., Howell, S.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Axial ligands and alicyclic ring size modulate the activity and biochemical pharmacology of ammine/cycloalkylamine-platinum(IV) complexes in tumor cells resistant to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) or trans-1R,2R-1S,2S-diaminocyclohexanetetrachloroplatinum(IV). Yoshida, M., Khokhar, A.R., Siddik, Z.H. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Phase II study of carmustine, dacarbazine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen in advanced melanoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Margolin, K.A., Liu, P.Y., Flaherty, L.E., Sosman, J.A., Walker, M.J., Smith, J.W., Fletcher, W.S., Weiss, G.R., Unger, J.M., Sondak, V.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Pharmacokinetic study of trimetrexate in combination with cisplatin. Hudes, G.R., LaCreta, F., Walczak, J., Tinsley, P., Litwin, S., Comis, R.L., O'Dwyer, P.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Tamoxifen: is it useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma? McClay, E.F., McClay, M.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Human deafness dystonia syndrome is caused by a defect in assembly of the DDP1/TIMM8a-TIMM13 complex. Roesch, K., Curran, S.P., Tranebjaerg, L., Koehler, C.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Ancient duplications of the human proglucagon gene. Irwin, D.M. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The calcium-binding aspartate/glutamate carriers, citrin and aralar1, are new substrates for the DDP1/TIMM8a-TIMM13 complex. Roesch, K., Hynds, P.J., Varga, R., Tranebjaerg, L., Koehler, C.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of the deafness-dystonia protein DDP/TIMM8a with the signal transduction adaptor molecule STAM1. Blackstone, C., Roberts, R.G., Seeburg, D.P., Sheng, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Neuronal cell death in the visual cortex is a prominent feature of the X-linked recessive mitochondrial deafness-dystonia syndrome caused by mutations in the TIMM8a gene. Tranebjaerg, L., Jensen, P.K., Van Ghelue, M., Vnencak-Jones, C.L., Sund, S., Elgjo, K., Jakobsen, J., Lindal, S., Warburg, M., Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A., Skullerud, K. Ophthalmic Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel deafness/dystonia peptide gene mutation that causes dystonia in female carriers of Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome. Swerdlow, R.H., Wooten, G.F. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Clinical and molecular findings in a patient with a novel mutation in the deafness-dystonia peptide (DDP1) gene. Binder, J., Hofmann, S., Kreisel, S., Wöhrle, J.C., Bäzner, H., Krauss, J.K., Hennerici, M.G., Bauer, M.F. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Enalapril increases ischemia-induced endothelial progenitor cell mobilization through manipulation of the CD26 system. Wang, C.H., Verma, S., Hsieh, I.C., Chen, Y.J., Kuo, L.T., Yang, N.I., Wang, S.Y., Wu, M.Y., Hsu, C.M., Cheng, C.W., Cherng, W.J. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Dystonia with and without deafness is caused by TIMM8A mutation. Swerdlow, R.H., Juel, V.C., Wooten, G.F. Advances in neurology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of five antineoplastic agents on tumor xenografts with different growth rates. Mattern, J., Wayss, K., Volm, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of diethyldithiocarbamate as a chemoprotector from toxic effects of cisplatin. Qazi, R., Chang, A.Y., Borch, R.F., Montine, T., Dedon, P., Loughner, J., Bennett, J.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities