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Gene Review

Gstm1  -  glutathione S-transferase mu 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: GST 3-3, GST Yb1, GSTM1-1, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1, Glutathione S-transferase Yb-1
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Disease relevance of Gstm1

  • Reduction of Gstm1 expression in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertension rat contributes to increased oxidative stress [1].
  • In the first, involving a U.S. population sample, smokers with and without lung cancer were phenotyped, and a highly significant correlation between the absence of GSTM1-1 activity and adenocarcinoma of the lung was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[2]
  • The isoenzyme 3-3 of rat liver glutathione S-transferase (GST 3-3) isolated from a baculovirus expression system has been crystallized with and without inhibitor [3].

High impact information on Gstm1


Biological context of Gstm1


Anatomical context of Gstm1

  • Molecular masses of rGSTM2, rGSTM3 and rGST-Alpha from liver and testis sources were similar, unlike STF-GSTM1, which was larger by 325 Da than its liver counterpart [9].
  • Microinjected glutathione S-transferase Yb subunits translocate to the cell nucleus [11].
  • Glutathione-S-transferase Yb subunits were recently identified in rat brain and localized to astrocytes, ependymal cells lining the ventricles, subventricular zone cells, and tanycytes [12].
  • These experiments demonstrate that glutathione S-transferase Yb subunits isolated from nuclei rapidly translocate to nuclei upon reintroduction into cell cytoplasms [11].
  • The kinetic study strongly suggested that GSTs determining the higher enantioselectivity towards (R)-STO in the rat liver cytosol were the class mu enzymes, especially GST 3-3, which had the highest Kcat/Km value towards (R)-STO as well as the highest (R) to (S) ratio in the enantioselectivity among the six isoenzymes examined [13].

Associations of Gstm1 with chemical compounds

  • The conformational stabilities of two homodimeric class mu glutathione transferases (GSTM1-1 and GSTM2-2) were studied by urea- and guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation [14].
  • From these homology modeling and docking data, the difference in stereoselectivity between GST 3-3 and GST 4-4 for the R- and S-configured carbons of the oxirane moiety could be rationalized [10].
  • GST 4-4 distinguishes itself from GST 3-3 in being much more efficient and stereoselective in the nucleophilic addition of GSH to epoxides and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones [10].
  • The concentrations of caffeic acid that inhibited reversibly 50% of the activity of different GST isoenzymes towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) (I50 values) were 58 (GST 4-4), 360 (GST 3-3) and 470 microM (GST 7-7), and higher than 640 microM for GST isoenzymes of the alpha class (GST 1-1 and 2-2) [15].
  • The tertiary structure of residues 1-202 is similar to that of the corresponding region in the class mu isoform of glutathione transferase from rat, GST3-3 (Ji et al. (1992), Biochemistry, 31, 10169-10184) [16].

Other interactions of Gstm1

  • Changes in tertiary structure occur as two transitions; the first is protein concentration dependent, while the second is weakly dependent (GSTM1-1) or independent (GSTM2-2) [14].
  • The remaining activity towards CDNB (expressed as percentage of control) after incubating 1.25 microM-GST with 100 microM-caffeic acid for 6 hr at 37 degrees C was 34 (GST 2-2), 24 (GST 1-1), 23 (GST 4-4), 10 (GST 3-3) and 5% (GST 7-7) [15].
  • In addition, DAS induced the glutathione S-transferase alpha subfamily, the glutathione S-transferase mu subfamily, and epoxide hydrolase [17].
  • Three other glial proteins (vimentin, S100 and GST Yb) disappeared from infarct over a similar time course [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gstm1


  1. Reduction of Gstm1 expression in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertension rat contributes to increased oxidative stress. McBride, M.W., Brosnan, M.J., Mathers, J., McLellan, L.I., Miller, W.H., Graham, D., Hanlon, N., Hamilton, C.A., Polke, J.M., Lee, W.K., Dominiczak, A.F. Hypertension (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The human glutathione S-transferase supergene family, its polymorphism, and its effects on susceptibility to lung cancer. Ketterer, B., Harris, J.M., Talaska, G., Meyer, D.J., Pemble, S.E., Taylor, J.B., Lang, N.P., Kadlubar, F.F. Environ. Health Perspect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystals of isoenzyme 3-3 of rat liver glutathione S-transferase with and without inhibitor. Fu, J.H., Rose, J., Chung, Y.J., Tam, M.F., Wang, B.C. Acta Crystallogr., B (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Phase II enzyme expression in rat liver in response to the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Nuwaysir, E.F., Daggett, D.A., Jordan, V.C., Pitot, H.C. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. A basis for differentiating among the multiple human Mu-glutathione S-transferases and molecular cloning of brain GSTM5. Takahashi, Y., Campbell, E.A., Hirata, Y., Takayama, T., Listowsky, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of glutathione S-transferase Yb1 mRNA as the androgen-repressed mRNA by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. Chang, C.S., Saltzman, A.G., Sorensen, N.S., Hiipakka, R.A., Liao, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Rat liver glutathione S-transferases. DNA sequence analysis of a Yb2 cDNA clone and regulation of the Yb1 and Yb2 mRNAs by phenobarbital. Ding, G.J., Ding, V.D., Rodkey, J.A., Bennett, C.D., Lu, A.Y., Pickett, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Mapping of glutathione transferase (GST) genes in the rat. Klinga-Levan, K., Andersson, A., Hanson, C., Ridderström, M., Stenberg, G., Mannervik, B., Vajdy, M., Szpirer, J., Szpirer, C., Levan, G. Hereditas (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Secretion of glutathione S-transferase isoforms in the seminiferous tubular fluid, tissue distribution and sex steroid binding by rat GSTM1. Mukherjee, S.B., Aravinda, S., Gopalakrishnan, B., Nagpal, S., Salunke, D.M., Shaha, C. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. A homology model for rat mu class glutathione S-transferase 4-4. de Groot, M.J., Vermeulen, N.P., Mullenders, D.L., Donné-Op den Kelder, G.M. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Microinjected glutathione S-transferase Yb subunits translocate to the cell nucleus. Bennett, C.F., Yeoman, L.C. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential localization of glutathione-S-transferase Yp and Yb subunits in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes of rat brain. Cammer, W., Tansey, F., Abramovitz, M., Ishigaki, S., Listowsky, I. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Glutathione conjugation of styrene 7,8-oxide enantiomers by major glutathione transferase isoenzymes isolated from rat livers. Hiratsuka, A., Yokoi, A., Iwata, H., Watabe, T., Satoh, K., Hatayama, I., Sato, K. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Equilibrium folding of dimeric class mu glutathione transferases involves a stable monomeric intermediate. Hornby, J.A., Luo, J.K., Stevens, J.M., Wallace, L.A., Kaplan, W., Armstrong, R.N., Dirr, H.W. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro and in vivo reversible and irreversible inhibition of rat glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes by caffeic acid and its 2-S-glutathionyl conjugate. Ploemen, J.H., van Ommen, B., de Haan, A., Schefferlie, J.G., van Bladeren, P.J. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Crystal structure of human class mu glutathione transferase GSTM2-2. Effects of lattice packing on conformational heterogeneity. Raghunathan, S., Chandross, R.J., Kretsinger, R.H., Allison, T.J., Penington, C.J., Rule, G.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. The chemopreventive agent diallyl sulfide. A structurally atypical phenobarbital-type inducer. Dragnev, K.H., Nims, R.W., Lubet, R.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Astrocytic demise precedes delayed neuronal death in focal ischemic rat brain. Liu, D., Smith, C.L., Barone, F.C., Ellison, J.A., Lysko, P.G., Li, K., Simpson, I.A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of rat liver glutathione S-transferase Yb subunits by partial N-terminal sequencing after electroblotting of proteins onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane from an analytical isoelectric focusing gel. Chang, L.H., Hsieh, J.C., Chen, W.L., Tam, M.F. Electrophoresis (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Reversible modification of rat liver glutathione S-transferase 3-3 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene: specific labelling of Tyr-115. Liu, L.F., Hong, J.L., Tsai, S.P., Hsieh, J.C., Tam, M.F. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Specific induction of glutathione S-transferase GSTM2 subunit expression by epigallocatechin gallate in rat liver. Chou, F.P., Chu, Y.C., Hsu, J.D., Chiang, H.C., Wang, C.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence for identifying fatty acids in rat liver glutathione S-transferase and its possible involvement in the secondary structure. Li, M., Ishibashi, T. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Development of methodology for the three-dimensional modelling of the metabolic capacity of the rat nasal cavity using glutathione S-transferase M1 as an example. Robinson, D.A., Foster, J.R., Nash, J.A., Reed, C.J. Toxicologic pathology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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