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Gene Review

B2M  -  beta-2-microglobulin

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Disease relevance of B2M


High impact information on B2M


Biological context of B2M


Anatomical context of B2M


Associations of B2M with chemical compounds

  • During the final purification of beta 2M by CN reverse phase HPLC the mitogenic activity for bone cells separated from the beta 2M protein peak [11].
  • The ED50 of the bone-derived beta 2M (4,890 +/- 462 ng/ml) was several orders of magnitude (2 x 10(3) to 1.4 x 10(5) times) greater than the ED50 of simultaneously assayed purified growth factors and was no different from the ED50 of the crude EDTA matrix extract (3,350 +/- 890 ng/ml) [11].
  • Purified TGF beta, beta 2 m, and IGF I migrated as single bands on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with respective molecular masses of 24,000, 10,000, and 7,500 [13].
  • CA amyloid appeared to be potassium permanganate sensitive and tryptophan positive, and in this respect different from most other amyloid types except for AA and beta-2 microglobulin amyloid [14].
  • It was found that the method using the beta 2-M-free urine as a diluent was more accurate than using PBS [15].

Other interactions of B2M

  • A principal component of antibody transport is the neonatal receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, a heterodimer of a MHC-1 alpha-chain homolog ( FCGRT) and beta-2-microglobulin ( B2M) [8].
  • In conclusion, adult bone matrix, like fetal bone cultures, contains TGF beta, beta 2 m, and IGF I and these factors may play a role in adult skeletal remodeling [13].
  • BAMP is antigenically distinct from all adult serum proteins, free secretory component, beta 2-microglobulin, lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and five different caseins [16].
  • In addition the EPO adsorptive rate, as well as that of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG), was greater with a PMMA membrane than with a PAN membrane [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B2M


  1. Complete amino acid sequence of bovine beta 2-microglobulin. Groves, M.L., Greenberg, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Low temperature and peptides favor the formation of class I heterodimers on RMA-S cells at the cell surface. Rock, K.L., Gramm, C., Benacerraf, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Beta 2 microglobulin enhances the infectivity of cytomegalovirus and when bound to the virus enables class I HLA molecules to be used as a virus receptor. Grundy, J.E., McKeating, J.A., Ward, P.J., Sanderson, A.R., Griffiths, P.D. J. Gen. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytomegalovirus strain AD169 binds beta 2 microglobulin in vitro after release from cells. Grundy, J.E., McKeating, J.A., Griffiths, P.D. J. Gen. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Determination of bovine beta2-microglobulin and albumin in urine by a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Nakajima, Y., Hoshi, F., Higuchi, S., Kawamura, S. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Serum beta 2-microglobulin binds to a T-cell differentiation antigen and increases its expression. Kefford, R.F., Calabi, F., Fearnley, I.M., Burrone, O.R., Milstein, C. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Three-dimensional structure of beta 2-microglobulin. Becker, J.W., Reeke, G.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Beta-2-microglobulin haplotypes in U.S. beef cattle and association with failure of passive transfer in newborn calves. Clawson, M.L., Heaton, M.P., Chitko-McKown, C.G., Fox, J.M., Smith, T.P., Snelling, W.M., Keele, J.W., Laegreid, W.W. Mamm. Genome (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of cattle beta 2-microglobulin cDNA. Ellis, S.A., Braem, K.A., Payne, L.K. Immunogenetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Solution physicochemical properties of bovine beta 2-microglobulin. Aggregation states. Kumosinski, T.F., Brown, E.M., Groves, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Beta 2-microglobulin is not a bone cell mitogen. Jennings, J.C., Mohan, S., Baylink, D.J. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma protein adsorption to highly permeable hemodialysis membranes. Clark, W.R., Macias, W.L., Molitoris, B.A., Wang, N.H. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of growth factors from adult bovine bone. Canalis, E., McCarthy, T., Centrella, M. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Casein related amyloid, characterization of a new and unique amyloid protein isolated from bovine corpora amylacea. Niewold, T.A., Murphy, C.L., Hulskamp-Koch, C.A., Tooten, P.C., Gruys, E. Amyloid (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Measurement of beta 2-microglobulin in bovine serum and urine by radioimmunoassay. Kunugiyama, I., Ito, N., Takagaki, Y., Hayashi, S., Sone, K., Gotoh, H., Saitoh, T., Furukawa, Y., Yamaguchi, T. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Bovine-associated mucoprotein: I. Distribution among adult and fetal bovine tissues and body fluids. Butler, J.E., Pringnitz, D.J., Martens, C.L., Crouch, N. Differentiation (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Adsorption of human recombinant erythropoietin on dialysis membranes in vitro. Mori, H., Hiraoka, K., Yorifuji, R., Iwasaki, T., Gomikawa, S., Inagaki, O., Inoue, S., Takamitsu, Y., Fujita, Y. Artificial organs. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection and quantitation of beta-2-microglobulin glycosylated end products in human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Tang, X., Sadeghi, M., Olumee, Z., Vertes, A., Braatz, J.A., McIlwain, L.K., Dreifuss, P.A. Anal. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Latex immunoassay of retinol-binding protein. Bernard, A.M., Moreau, D., Lauwerys, R.R. Clin. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. A rapid and robust particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay for serum beta 2 microglobulin. Medcalf, E.A., Newman, D.J., Gilboa, A., Gorman, E.G., Price, C.P. J. Immunol. Methods (1990) [Pubmed]
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