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Gene Review

B2m  -  beta-2 microglobulin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Beta-2-microglobulin, Ly-m11, beta 2 microglobulin, beta2-m, beta2m
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Disease relevance of B2m

  • Accordingly, beta2m-deficient mice suffer from tissue iron overload [1].
  • Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on H-2 expression and susceptibility to NK- or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated lysis of the YAC-1 lymphoma and its beta 2-microglobulin-deficient variant [2].
  • Mutant mice with a defined genetic defect in the beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) or the H2-I-A beta chain, which are virtually devoid of functional CD8 or CD4 alpha beta T cells, respectively, were employed for analyzing immune mechanisms involved in acquired resistance against Listeria monocytogenes [3].
  • Iron overload and heart fibrosis in mice deficient for both beta2-microglobulin and Rag1 [4].
  • In order to analyze the structural basis of this phenomenon, processing and cell surface expression of HLA class I molecules have been investigated in the beta 2m null human melanoma cell line FO-1 transfected with either the human or mouse beta 2m genes [5].

High impact information on B2m


Chemical compound and disease context of B2m


Biological context of B2m


Anatomical context of B2m


Associations of B2m with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the beta 2m-deficient variant, which remained H-2 negative at the cell surface after DMSO treatment, also remained NK sensitive [2].
  • High doses of cyclosporine given for 6 to 8 wk reduced the peritubular Ig deposits, renal Ia and H-2K expression, and specific mRNA for beta 2-microglobulin and MHC genes, but did not reduce anti-DNA antibody levels in serum [21].
  • The day 7 NK cell responses in beta 2-m-/- mice, but not in normal C57BL/6 animals, were cyclosporin A sensitive and coincided with IL-2 production and high affinity IL-2R expression on NK cells [22].
  • The addition of beta 2m to the culture medium stimulated, whereas indomethacin inhibited basal calcium efflux following 48 hours [23].
  • However, the difference (delta) between the calcium efflux induced in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in basal medium and that in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in indomethacin supplemented medium was similar, suggesting a prostaglandin independent mechanism [23].

Physical interactions of B2m


Regulatory relationships of B2m


Other interactions of B2m

  • We evaluated the development of spontaneous tumors in mice lacking beta-2 microglobulin (beta2m; and thus MHC class I, CD1d, and CD16) and/or perforin, since these tumor cells would be expected to activate innate effector cells [31].
  • Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background [32].
  • beta2-microglobulin dependence of the lupus-like autoimmune syndrome of MRL-lpr mice [33].
  • Other genes within the complex include beta2-microglobulin and H3b [34].
  • Subcongenic analysis of the Idd13 locus in NOD/Lt mice: evidence for several susceptibility genes including a possible diabetogenic role for beta 2-microglobulin [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B2m


  1. Correction of the iron overload defect in beta-2-microglobulin knockout mice by lactoferrin abolishes their increased susceptibility to tuberculosis. Schaible, U.E., Collins, H.L., Priem, F., Kaufmann, S.H. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on H-2 expression and susceptibility to NK- or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated lysis of the YAC-1 lymphoma and its beta 2-microglobulin-deficient variant. Yamasaki, T., Klein, G., Ljunggren, H.G., Höglund, P., Ohlén, C., Petersson, M.G., Kärre, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Studies with MHC-deficient knock-out mice reveal impact of both MHC I- and MHC II-dependent T cell responses on Listeria monocytogenes infection. Ladel, C.H., Flesch, I.E., Arnoldi, J., Kaufmann, S.H. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Iron overload and heart fibrosis in mice deficient for both beta2-microglobulin and Rag1. Santos, M.M., de Sousa, M., Rademakers, L.H., Clevers, H., Marx, J.J., Schilham, M.W. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of beta-2 microglobulin in temperature-sensitive and interferon-gamma-induced exocytosis of HLA class I molecules. Tatake, R.J., Ferrone, S., Zeff, R.A. Transplantation (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Functional expression of murine V2R pheromone receptors involves selective association with the M10 and M1 families of MHC class Ib molecules. Loconto, J., Papes, F., Chang, E., Stowers, L., Jones, E.P., Takada, T., Kumánovics, A., Fischer Lindahl, K., Dulac, C. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. undulated, a mutation affecting the development of the mouse skeleton, has a point mutation in the paired box of Pax 1. Balling, R., Deutsch, U., Gruss, P. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Detailed analysis of the mouse H-2Kb promoter: enhancer-like sequences and their role in the regulation of class I gene expression. Kimura, A., Israël, A., Le Bail, O., Kourilsky, P. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of wild-type and mutant mouse beta 2-microglobulin genes. Parnes, J.R., Seidman, J.G. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequential changes in luminal microflora and mucosal cytokine expression during developing of colitis in HLA-B27/beta2-microglobulin transgenic rats. Hata, K., Andoh, A., Sato, H., Araki, Y., Tanaka, M., Tsujikawa, T., Fujiyama, Y., Bamba, T. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Major histocompatibility complex class I-deficient NOD-B2mnull mice are diabetes and insulitis resistant. Serreze, D.V., Leiter, E.H., Christianson, G.J., Greiner, D., Roopenian, D.C. Diabetes (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Combination therapy for adult T-cell leukemia-xenografted mice: flavopiridol and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody. Zhang, M., Zhang, Z., Goldman, C.K., Janik, J., Waldmann, T.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Natural killer cell activity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Zajac, A.J., Muller, D., Pederson, K., Frelinger, J.A., Quinn, D.G. Int. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Of mice and Marfan: genetic linkage analyses of the fibrillin genes, Fbn1 and Fbn2, in the mouse genome. Goldstein, C., Liaw, P., Jimenez, S.A., Buchberg, A.M., Siracusa, L.D. Mamm. Genome (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Susceptibility of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Tarleton, R.L., Koller, B.H., Latour, A., Postan, M. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Beta 2-microglobulin-dependent NK1.1+ T cells are not essential for T helper cell 2 immune responses. Brown, D.R., Fowell, D.J., Corry, D.B., Wynn, T.A., Moskowitz, N.H., Cheever, A.W., Locksley, R.M., Reiner, S.L. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Defective iron homeostasis in beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice recapitulates hereditary hemochromatosis in man. Santos, M., Schilham, M.W., Rademakers, L.H., Marx, J.J., de Sousa, M., Clevers, H. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A lymphocyte antigen encoded by a locus closely linked to H-3 on the second chromosome of the mouse. Gasser, D.L., Ziebur, J., Matsumoto, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Antigen is required for the activation of effector activities, whereas interleukin 2 Is required for the maintenance of memory in ovalbumin-specific, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Ke, Y., Ma, H., Kapp, J.A. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Contributions of beta2-microglobulin-dependent molecules and lymphocytes to iron regulation: insights from HfeRag1(-/-) and beta2mRag1(-/-) double knock-out mice. Miranda, C.J., Makui, H., Andrews, N.C., Santos, M.M. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased class I and class II MHC products and mRNA in kidneys of MRL-lpr/lpr mice during autoimmune nephritis and inhibition by cyclosporine. Halloran, P.F., Urmson, J., Ramassar, V., Laskin, C., Autenried, P. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. IL-2-dependent NK cell responses discovered in virus-infected beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Su, H.C., Orange, J.S., Fast, L.D., Chan, A.T., Simpson, S.J., Terhorst, C., Biron, C.A. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of IL-1 beta and prostaglandins in beta 2-microglobulin-induced bone mineral dissolution. Moe, S.M., Hack, B.K., Cummings, S.A., Sprague, S.M. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduced development of CD4-8-B220+ T cells but normal autoantibody production in lpr/lpr mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Ohteki, T., Iwamoto, M., Izui, S., MacDonald, H.R. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Elimination of self-peptide major histocompatibility complex class I reactivity in NOD and beta 2-microglobulin-negative mice. Huang, R., Guo, J., Li, X., Faustman, D.L. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. 2B4 (CD244)-CD48 interactions provide a novel MHC class I-independent system for NK-cell self-tolerance in mice. McNerney, M.E., Guzior, D., Kumar, V. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. IFN-gamma induces expression of MHC class I molecules in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurones. Fujimaki, H., Hikawa, N., Nagoya, M., Nagata, T., Minami, M. Neuroreport (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes are not necessary for heterotypic immunity to influenza. Bender, B.S., Bell, W.E., Taylor, S., Small, P.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Increased hepcidin expression and hypoferraemia associated with an acute phase response are not affected by inactivation of HFE. Frazer, D.M., Wilkins, S.J., Millard, K.N., McKie, A.T., Vulpe, C.D., Anderson, G.J. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Linkage of beta 2-microglobulin and ly-m11 by molecular cloning and DNA-mediated gene transfer. Margulies, D.H., Parnes, J.R., Johnson, N.A., Seidman, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Innate immune surveillance of spontaneous B cell lymphomas by natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells. Street, S.E., Hayakawa, Y., Zhan, Y., Lew, A.M., MacGregor, D., Jamieson, A.M., Diefenbach, A., Yagita, H., Godfrey, D.I., Smyth, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time. Carlson, G.A., Goodman, P.A., Lovett, M., Taylor, B.A., Marshall, S.T., Peterson-Torchia, M., Westaway, D., Prusiner, S.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. beta2-microglobulin dependence of the lupus-like autoimmune syndrome of MRL-lpr mice. Christianson, G.J., Blankenburg, R.L., Duffy, T.M., Panka, D., Roths, J.B., Marshak-Rothstein, A., Roopenian, D.C. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression screening of a yeast artificial chromosome contig refines the location of the mouse H3a minor histocompatibility antigen gene. Zuberi, A.R., Christianson, G.J., Dave, S.B., Bradley, J.A., Roopenian, D.C. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Subcongenic analysis of the Idd13 locus in NOD/Lt mice: evidence for several susceptibility genes including a possible diabetogenic role for beta 2-microglobulin. Serreze, D.V., Bridgett, M., Chapman, H.D., Chen, E., Richard, S.D., Leiter, E.H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. A pseudogene homologous to mouse transplantation antigens: transplantation antigens are encoded by eight exons that correlate with protein domains. Steinmetz, M., Moore, K.W., Frelinger, J.G., Sher, B.T., Shen, F.W., Boyse, E.A., Hood, L. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Ly-m11: the H-3 region of mouse chromosome 2 controls a new surface alloantigen. Tada, N., Kimura, S., Hatzfeld, A., Hämmerling, U. Immunogenetics (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. The MHC-encoded class I molecule, H-2Kk, demonstrates distinct requirements of assembly factors for cell surface expression: roles of TAP, Tapasin and beta2-microglobulin. Prasanna, S.J., Nandi, D. Mol. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Enhanced human CD4+ T cell engraftment in beta2-microglobulin-deficient NOD-scid mice. Christianson, S.W., Greiner, D.L., Hesselton, R.A., Leif, J.H., Wagar, E.J., Schweitzer, I.B., Rajan, T.V., Gott, B., Roopenian, D.C., Shultz, L.D. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Positive selection of an MHC class-I restricted TCR in the absence of classical MHC class I molecules. Maurice, M.M., Gould, D.S., Carroll, J., Vugmeyster, Y., Ploegh, H.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
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