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Gene Review

MGP  -  matrix Gla protein

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Disease relevance of MGP


High impact information on MGP


Biological context of MGP


Anatomical context of MGP

  • Matrix GLA protein (MGP) is expressed in endothelial cells (EC), and MGP deficiency results in developmental defects suggesting involvement in EC function [4].
  • Since essentially equal amounts of the 79- and 83-residue forms of MGP were also detected in bovine articular cartilage and plasma, it seems likely that the COOH-terminal processing events identified in bone apply to many of the other tissues which synthesize this protein [7].
  • Mg2+ and Mn2+ supported attachment to all three ECM proteins but Ca2+ did not support attachment to collagen and was less effective than Mg2+ or Mn2+ in chondrocyte attachment to MGP [9].
  • In long bone diaphyses, total levels of MGP were essentially equivalent in newborn, juvenile, and adult rats [10].
  • Northern analysis and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MGP was only expressed by pericytes in calcified nodules [11].

Associations of MGP with chemical compounds

  • The presence of NH2-terminal Glu residues between the putative targeting domain for the gamma-carboxylase in the MGP leader sequence and the mid-molecule Gla residues suggests that the gamma-carboxylase may have additional, as yet unrecognized, specificity requirements which determine the susceptibility of Glu residues for gamma-carboxylation [6].
  • Two forms of MGP were isolated from demineralization and urea extracts of bovine cortical bone, one 79 residues in length with the COOH terminus Phe-Arg-Gln and the other 83 residues in length with the COOH terminus Phe-Arg-Gln-Arg-Arg-Gly-Ala [7].
  • In this study, attachment assays were used to examine integrin-mediated attachment of chondrocytes to fibronectin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and type II collagen [9].
  • Phosphoserine was identified at residues 3, 6, and 9 of bovine, human, rat, and lamb MGP by N-terminal protein sequencing [8].
  • Two of the serines phosphorylated in shark MGP, residues 2 and 5, also have glutamate residues in the n + 2 position in tandemly repeated Ser-X-Glu sequences, whereas the third, shark residue 3, would acquire an acidic phosphoserine in the n + 2 position upon phosphorylation of serine 5 [8].

Other interactions of MGP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MGP

  • To further characterize the MGP antigen in bone, extracts from newborn and adult rat bones were chromatographed by gel filtration over Sephacryl S-200 [10].
  • The radioimmunoassay for rat MGP which was developed for these studies employs rabbit antibody directed against calf MGP and rat MGP for standards and radioiodinated tracer [10].
  • Matrix GLA protein (MGP), also expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, was added to CVC in coculture [13].


  1. Cell adhesion to matrix Gla protein and its inhibition by an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. Loeser, R.F., Wallin, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell differentiation in vascular calcification. Boström, K.I. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 by Matrix GLA Protein in Vascular Endothelial Cells Involves Activin-like Kinase Receptor 1. Yao, Y., Zebboudj, A.F., Shao, E., Perez, M., Bostr??m, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Matrix GLA protein stimulates VEGF expression through increased transforming growth factor-beta1 activity in endothelial cells. Boström, K., Zebboudj, A.F., Yao, Y., Lin, T.S., Torres, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The putative RGD-dependent cell adhesion activity of matrix Gla protein is due to higher molecular weight contaminants. Cancela, M.L., Williamson, M.K., Price, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Primary structure of bovine matrix Gla protein, a new vitamin K-dependent bone protein. Price, P.A., Williamson, M.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Carboxyl-terminal proteolytic processing of matrix Gla protein. Hale, J.E., Williamson, M.K., Price, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Conserved phosphorylation of serines in the Ser-X-Glu/Ser(P) sequences of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from shark, lamb, rat, cow, and human. Price, P.A., Rice, J.S., Williamson, M.K. Protein Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Modulation of integrin-mediated attachment of chondrocytes to extracellular matrix proteins by cations, retinoic acid, and transforming growth factor beta. Loeser, R.F. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Developmental appearance of matrix GLA protein during calcification in the rat. Otawara, Y., Price, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Matrix Gla protein is differentially expressed during the deposition of a calcified matrix by vascular pericytes. Canfield, A.E., Doherty, M.J., Kelly, V., Newman, B., Farrington, C., Grant, M.E., Boot-Handford, R.P. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Matrix Gla protein, a new gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein which is associated with the organic matrix of bone. Price, P.A., Urist, M.R., Otawara, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Endothelial cells modulate osteogenesis in calcifying vascular cells. Shin, V., Zebboudj, A.F., Boström, K. J. Vasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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