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Gene Review

Mgp  -  matrix Gla protein

Mus musculus

Synonyms: MGP, Matrix Gla protein, Mglap
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Disease relevance of Mgp

  • While osteocalcin-deficient mice have increased bone formation, MGP-deficient mice have abnormal calcification leading to osteopenia, fractures, and premature death owing to arterial calcification [1].
  • These findings suggest that abnormal expression of MGP plays a major role in the pathologic calcification of the twy mouse [2].
  • Hypertrophy of abnormally proliferated chondrocyte-like cells, which are different from fibrocartilaginous cells of the annulus fibrosus, was observed in the intervertebral disks of the twy mouse at 3 weeks of age, and MGP gene expression was noted at the same time [2].
  • In contrast to the significant difference in the effects of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on bone calcium efflux and osteoblastic collagen synthesis, these two forms of acidosis have a similar effect on osteoblastic RNA expression of both matrix Gla protein and osteopontin [3].
  • Furthermore, since MGP-treated athymic mice were also protected against Listeria infection, mature T cells were most likely not involved in this enhanced resistance [4].

High impact information on Mgp

  • Mgp-deficient mice additionally exhibit inappropriate calcification of various cartilages, including the growth plate, which eventually leads to short stature, osteopenia and fractures [5].
  • Mice that lack Mgp develop to term but die within two months as a result of arterial calcification which leads to blood-vessel rupture [5].
  • Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix Gla protein-deficient mice: evidence for osteopontin as an inducible inhibitor of vascular calcification in vivo [6].
  • The gene for matrix Gla protein seems to be a specific target of Fra-1 since its expression was markedly increased in the long bones of fra-1-transgenic mice [7].
  • Here, we show that restoration of Mgp expression in arteries rescues the arterial mineralization phenotype of Mgp-/- mice, whereas its expression in osteoblasts prevents bone mineralization [8].

Biological context of Mgp


Anatomical context of Mgp

  • Consistent with this observation, TG2 expression and gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysyl crosslink levels were also increased in Mgp(-/-) aortas [9].
  • In growth plate cartilage, MGP mRNA is present in resting, proliferative, and late hypertrophic chondrocytes [10].
  • Surprisingly, MGP mRNA is absent from the early hypertrophic chondrocytes and from the osteoblasts [10].
  • This study demonstrates that during development MGP gene expression occurs early and is predominant at the epithelial mesenchymal interfaces, principally of lung and limb buds, and in cells of the chondrocytic lineage [10].
  • Finally, the MGP gene is expressed at a lower level in kidney medulla and uterus smooth muscle but not in brain, spleen, or heart during development [10].

Associations of Mgp with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Mgp


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mgp


  1. Skeletal functions of vitamin K-dependent proteins: not just for clotting anymore. Booth, S.L. Nutr. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene expression of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins in the limb joints and intervertebral disks of the twy mouse. Ohtsuki, T., Furuya, S., Yamada, T., Nomura, S., Hata, J., Yabe, Y., Hosoda, Y. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro metabolic and respiratory acidosis selectively inhibit osteoblastic matrix gene expression. Frick, K.K., Bushinsky, D.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased phagocytic activity in mice treated by a mouse granuloma protein. Fontan, E., Fauve, R.M. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein. Luo, G., Ducy, P., McKee, M.D., Pinero, G.J., Loyer, E., Behringer, R.R., Karsenty, G. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix Gla protein-deficient mice: evidence for osteopontin as an inducible inhibitor of vascular calcification in vivo. Speer, M.Y., McKee, M.D., Guldberg, R.E., Liaw, L., Yang, H.Y., Tung, E., Karsenty, G., Giachelli, C.M. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The Fos-related antigen Fra-1 is an activator of bone matrix formation. Eferl, R., Hoebertz, A., Schilling, A.F., Rath, M., Karreth, F., Kenner, L., Amling, M., Wagner, E.F. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Extracellular matrix mineralization is regulated locally; different roles of two gla-containing proteins. Murshed, M., Schinke, T., McKee, M.D., Karsenty, G. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Osteopontin Upregulation and Polymerization by Transglutaminase 2 in Calcified Arteries of Matrix Gla Protein-deficient Mice. Kaartinen, M.T., Murshed, M., Karsenty, G., McKee, M.D. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. The matrix Gla protein gene is a marker of the chondrogenesis cell lineage during mouse development. Luo, G., D'Souza, R., Hogue, D., Karsenty, G. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of bone matrix proteins in urolithiasis model rats. Yasui, T., Fujita, K., Sasaki, S., Sato, M., Sugimoto, M., Hirota, S., Kitamura, Y., Nomura, S., Kohri, K. Urol. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of mouse matrix gla protein: one of five glutamic acid residues potentially modified to gla is not conserved in the mouse sequence. Ikeda, T., Yamaguchi, A., Icho, T., Tsuchida, N., Yoshiki, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Anabolic actions of PTH (1-34): use of a novel tissue engineering model to investigate temporal effects on bone. Pettway, G.J., Schneider, A., Koh, A.J., Widjaja, E., Morris, M.D., Meganck, J.A., Goldstein, S.A., McCauley, L.K. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Cartilage formation and calcification in arteries of mice lacking matrix Gla protein. El-Maadawy, S., Kaartinen, M.T., Schinke, T., Murshed, M., Karsenty, G., McKee, M.D. Connect. Tissue Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Human osteogenic protein-1 induces chondroblastic, osteoblastic, and/or adipocytic differentiation of clonal murine target cells. Asahina, I., Sampath, T.K., Hauschka, P.V. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular cloning of the Matrix Gla Protein gene from Xenopus laevis. Functional analysis of the promoter identifies a calcium sensitive region required for basal activity. Conceição, N., Henriques, N.M., Ohresser, M.C., Hublitz, P., Schüle, R., Cancela, M.L. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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