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Gene Review

SLC11A1  -  solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled...

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: BCG, NRAMP1
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Disease relevance of SLC11A1

  • As the former was significantly associated with the risk of spleen contamination and the number of contaminated organs, SLC11A1 appears to be involved in the control of resistance to Salmonella carrier state [1].
  • The effects of active nonspecific immunotherapy were studied in 42 patients receiving daily iv Corynebacterium parvum at 2 mg/m2 in 14-day courses and in 14 patients receiving iv methanol extraction residue of BCG (MER) at 0.5 mg/m2 weekly [2].
  • We previously reported that gamma delta T cells appeared and could play a protective role early in infections with intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Salmonella choleraesuis [3].
  • Pretreatment of chickens with BCG 1 week before inoculation with avian sarcoma virus had a stimulatory effect on virus-induced tumor growth in 15 of 17 cases tested [4].
  • Administration of BCG also gave rise to heightened levels of tumor-associated, cell-mediated immunity, both on the part of chickens which received a subsequent injection of oncogenic virus as well as normal, BCG-inoculated controls [4].

High impact information on SLC11A1

  • Effect of immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and methanol extraction residue of BCG administered intravenously on host defense function in cancer patients [2].
  • The increase in ADCC activity caused by BCG and C. parvum was eliminated by treatment with carbonyl iron of the splenocyte suspensions [5].
  • The effect of four immunomodulators (BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, pyran copolymer, and levamisole) on the cellular arm of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was investigated in mice with 51Cr-labeled chicken erythrocytes employed as targets [5].
  • We have first analyzed six inbred chicken lines of Salmonella-resistant or Salmonella-susceptible phenotypes for the presence of nucleotide sequence variations within the coding portion of NRAMP1 [6].
  • Injection of BCG into the wing web contralateral to that used for virus inoculation or injection of a subcellular fraction of BCG into the same wing web did not affect tumor development [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of SLC11A1

  • Complete response rates were 18 and 29% in patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder which was refractory to intravesical BCG in 2 non-comparative trials of prophylactic intravesical valrubicin [7].

Biological context of SLC11A1

  • The chicken NRAMP1 gene contains 15 exons and spans 5 kb of genomic DNA [8].
  • Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence analyses indicate that the chicken NRAMP1 polypeptide encodes a 555-amino-acid residue membrane protein with 12 putative transmembrane domains, two N-linked glycosylation sites, and an evolutionary conserved consensus transport motif [8].
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the SLC11A1 and TLR4 gene were tested on those animals as well as on a second batch of 279 hens whose resistance was assessed in the same conditions [1].
  • Stimulation of the effector cells of ADCC peaked on day 15 after injection of BCG and C. parvum and on day 7 after injection of pyran, which was less efficient in this respect than the two bacterial immunostimulants [5].
  • Macrophage activation by BCG did not result in significantly increased cytostasis [9].

Anatomical context of SLC11A1


Other interactions of SLC11A1

  • Broiler sire alleles of the MHC class I, NRAMP1, PSAP, and IAP1 genes showed association with SE colonization in the F(1) generation of this novel disease resistance resource population [13].
  • Moreover a significant within-sire effect of VIL1, a marker gene for NRAMP1, was observed in 117 progeny resulting from 25 informative matings [14].
  • Thirty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in 3.1 kb of genomic DNA of the NRAMP1 gene [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SLC11A1

  • These results indicate that elevated Ag85 levels can be detected in patients with active tuberculosis even after BCG vaccination and suggest that combinatorial use of antibodies directed at different epitopes of this protein could provide a viable strategy for developing new host immune response-independent diagnostic tests for tuberculosis [16].
  • Effects of intravenous injection of BCG or Freund's complete adjuvant on swine alveolar macrophages [17].
  • A slight, but significant inhibition was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of BCG administered during the dietary treatment [18].
  • A third system, which detects the ballistic movement as the measurement of displacement (referred to as displacement BCG), is applied in the present study, together with the previous two systems, to the ballistocardiography of the egg [19].
  • DWR was measured by intradermal injection of BCG into the wattle of chickens [20].


  1. Effect of two candidate genes on the Salmonella carrier state in fowl. Beaumont, C., Protais, J., Pitel, F., Leveque, G., Malo, D., Lantier, F., Plisson-Petit, F., Colin, P., Protais, M., Le Roy, P., Elsen, J.M., Milan, D., Lantier, I., Neau, A., Salvat, G., Vignal, A. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and methanol extraction residue of BCG administered intravenously on host defense function in cancer patients. Hersh, E.M., Murphy, S.G., Quesada, J.R., Gutterman, J.U., Gschwind, C.R., Morgan, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Sendai virus pneumonia: evidence for the early recruitment of gamma delta T cells during the disease course. Ogasawara, T., Emoto, M., Kiyotani, K., Shimokata, K., Yoshida, T., Nagai, Y., Yoshikai, Y. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of avian sarcoma virus-induced tumor growth after pretreatment with BCG. Wainberg, M.A., Israel, E. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of immunomodulators on effector cells involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: Brief communication. Tagliabue, A., Mantovani, A., Polentarutti, N., Vecchi, A., Spreafico, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Resistance to salmonellosis in the chicken is linked to NRAMP1 and TNC. Hu, J., Bumstead, N., Barrow, P., Sebastiani, G., Olien, L., Morgan, K., Malo, D. Genome Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Valrubicin. Onrust, S.V., Lamb, H.M. Drugs & aging. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural organization, sequence, and expression of the chicken NRAMP1 gene encoding the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1. Hu, J., Bumstead, N., Skamene, E., Gros, P., Malo, D. DNA Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Macrophages induce antibody-dependent cytostasis but not lysis in guinea pig leukaemic cells. Lawson, A.D., Stevenson, G.T. Br. J. Cancer (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Studies on the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of thioglycollate-stimulated and BCG-activated peritoneal macrophages. Koren, H.S., Anderson, S.J., Adams, D.O. Cell. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Simultaneous acquisition of ECG, BCG, and blood pressure from chick embryos in the egg. Tazawa, H., Suzuki, Y., Musashi, H. J. Appl. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Human MD-1 homologue is a BCG-regulated gene product in monocytes: its identification by differential display. Begum, N.A., Tsuji, S., Nomura, M., Shida, K., Azuma, I., Hayashi, A., Matsumoto, M., Seya, T., Toyoshima, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Candidate genes for resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization in chickens as detected in a novel genetic cross. Lamont, S.J., Kaiser, M.G., Liu, W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Heritability of susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis infection in fowls and test of the role of the chromosome carrying the NRAMP1 gene. Girard-Santosuosso, O., Lantier, F., Lantier, I., Bumstead, N., Elsen, J.M., Beaumont, C. Genet. Sel. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene polymorphisms and response to vaccine against or challenge with Salmonella enteritidis in young chicks. Liu, W., Kaiser, M.G., Lamont, S.J. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Combinatorial use of antibodies to secreted mycobacterial proteins in a host immune system-independent test for tuberculosis. Landowski, C.P., Godfrey, H.P., Bentley-Hibbert, S.I., Liu, X., Huang, Z., Sepulveda, R., Huygen, K., Gennaro, M.L., Moy, F.H., Lesley, S.A., Haak-Frendscho, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of intravenous injection of BCG or Freund's complete adjuvant on swine alveolar macrophages. Charley, B., Petit, E., Leclerc, C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Phagocytic system stimulation in experimental atherosclerosis of chicks. Gaton, E., Orgad, U., Weisman, Y., Wolman, M. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Cardiogenic ballistograms of chicken eggs: comparison of measurements. Hashimoto, Y., Narita, T., Tazawa, H. Medical & biological engineering & computing. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Divergent selection for delayed-type wattle reaction of domestic fowls to BCG antigen. Afraz, F., Yamamoto, Y., Okada, I. Br. Poult. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
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