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Gene Review

BNP  -  brain natriuretic peptide

Sus scrofa

Synonyms: BNP1, NPPB
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Disease relevance of BNP

  • This study evaluated the effects of acute brain death (BD) on the release of ANP, BNP, big ET-1, and cardiac troponins in an animal model [1].
  • Like NO, BNP and CNP facilitate vagal neurotransmission and bradycardia [2].
  • Cumulatively, the data suggest that acute hypoxia stimulates cardiac BNP expression [3].
  • However, patients with ischemic heart disease also display increased plasma BNP and proBNP concentrations despite preserved cardiac function [3].
  • Following de-clamping, BNP was administered to the BNP group (n=10) by an i.v. (intravenous) bolus at 0.3 microg x kg(-1) of body weight x min(-1), followed by an infusion at a rate of 0.015 microg x kg(-1) of body weight x min(-1) for 60 min [4].

High impact information on BNP

  • With the use of an indirect immunoperoxidase method, serial sections examined by light microscopy showed foci of multihormonal myocytes containing both ANP and BNP localized in the subendocardium [5].
  • Complimentary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding porcine brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were isolated from a porcine atrial cDNA library [6].
  • The identification of these introns suggests that the BNP gene structure differs from the atrial natriuretic peptide gene in the location of intron 2 [6].
  • BNP mRNA encodes a propeptide of 131 amino acids, including a signal peptide domain (25 amino acids) and a prohormone domain (106 amino acids) [6].
  • In contrast, responses to papaverine and brain natriuretic peptide were unchanged after FPI [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of BNP


Biological context of BNP

  • This product (BNP') was short-lived; further degradation involved hydrolysis at Ile12-Gly13, Arg8-Leu9, Gly17-Leu18, Val22-Leu23, Arg11-Ile12 and Cys4-Phe5 [9].
  • BNP and CNP significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the heart rate (HR) response to vagal nerve stimulation [2].
  • Specific 125I-BNP binding sites were found to be localized in the SFO, an area densely labeled by 125I-alpha-rat atrial natriuretic peptide and 125I-(Sar1,Ile8)-angiotensin II [10].
  • By micorosequence analyses of the native high MW BNP as well as its tryptic and chymotryptic peptides, the complete amino acid sequence of the high MW BNP was determined [11].
  • This human clone, H1, also contained a sequence homologous to porcine BNP precursor [12].

Anatomical context of BNP

  • When the two peptides were incubated with choroid plexus membranes, the products being analysed by h.p.l.c., alpha-hANP was degraded twice as fast as BNP [9].
  • We tested both relaxation and cGMP generation by atrial (ANP), brain (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in oxytocin-stimulated myometrium from near-term pregnant guinea pigs to investigate the ability and mechanism of natriuretic peptides to inhibit myometrial contractility [13].
  • Biochemical and cytochemical analyses of BNP-stimulated guanylate cyclase in frog choroid plexus [14].
  • Ultracytochemical tests for GC show that BNP notably increases the enzymatic reaction product along the apical surfaces of the epithelial cells [14].
  • Guinea pig caecal circular smooth muscle cells were used to determine whether brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) can inhibit the contractile response produced by cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) [15].

Associations of BNP with chemical compounds

  • The results were compared with the effects of atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides [16].
  • Anantin, a competitive blocker of the guanylate cyclase A receptor, significantly reduced the increase in cGMP produced by ANP and BNP, but had no effect on relaxation induced by either peptide [13].
  • We showed that the rank order of inhibitory potencies, which were mediated by cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, was BNP > or = ANP > or = CNP [17].
  • Acquisition of these present findings enhances our knowledge of the physiology of BNP, atrial natriuretic peptides and angiotensin II system in the SFO [10].
  • The amino acid sequence determined for the peptide shows remarkable similarity to those of ANP and BNP, especially in the 17-residue sequences flanked by two cysteine residues [18].

Other interactions of BNP

  • INTRODUCTION: Atrium and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and big endothelin (ET)-1 are markers for severity of heart failure and may be used in the quality assessment of donor hearts [1].
  • BNP inhibited the contractile response produced by CCK-8 in a dose-response manner, with an IC50 value of 8.5 nM, and stimulated the production of cAMP [15].
  • Captopril had no effect and, indeed, no hydrolysis of BNP-26 by peptidyl dipeptidase A (angiotensin-converting enzyme) was observed even after prolonged incubation with the purified enzyme [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BNP


  1. Effect of acute brain death on release of atrium and B-type natriuretic peptides in an animal model. Potapov, E.V., Blömer, T., Michael, R., Hennig, F., Müller, C., Loebe, M., Skrabal, C., Hetzer, R. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Natriuretic peptides like NO facilitate cardiac vagal neurotransmission and bradycardia via a cGMP pathway. Herring, N., Zaman, J.A., Paterson, D.J. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Acute myocardial hypoxia increases BNP gene expression. Goetze, J.P., Gore, A., Møller, C.H., Steinbrüchel, D.A., Rehfeld, J.F., Nielsen, L.B. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Administration of brain natriuretic peptide improves cardiac function following operations using extracorporeal circulation in an animal model. Bail, D.H., Steger, V., Heinzelmann, U., Schiller, S., Geim, A.I., Brüllmann, B., Ziemer, G. Clin. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Light and electron microscopic localization of brain natriuretic peptide in relation to atrial natriuretic peptide in porcine atrium. Immunohistocytochemical study using specific monoclonal antibodies. Hasegawa, K., Fujiwara, H., Itoh, H., Nakao, K., Fujiwara, T., Imura, H., Kawai, C. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning of a cDNA encoding porcine brain natriuretic peptide. Porter, J.G., Arfsten, A., Palisi, T., Scarborough, R.M., Lewicki, J.A., Seilhamer, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Brain injury impairs ATP-sensitive K+ channel function in piglet cerebral arteries. Armstead, W.M. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Further study of aldosterone secretion-inhibitory factor and brain natriuretic peptide on cortisol production of guinea pig zona fasciculata cells. Fang, V.S., Juan, C.C., Won, J.G., Ho, L.T. The Chinese journal of physiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The hydrolysis of brain and atrial natriuretic peptides by porcine choroid plexus is attributable to endopeptidase-24.11. Bourne, A., Kenny, A.J. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Receptor autoradiographic evidence of specific brain natriuretic peptide binding sites in the porcine subfornical organ. Niwa, M., Shigematsu, K., Kurihara, M., Kataoka, Y., Maeda, T., Nakao, K., Imura, H., Matsuo, H., Tsuchiyama, H., Ozaki, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Isolation and identification of a high molecular weight brain natriuretic peptide in porcine cardiac atrium. Minamino, N., Kangawa, K., Matsuo, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Human and canine gene homologs of porcine brain natriuretic peptide. Seilhamer, J.J., Arfsten, A., Miller, J.A., Lundquist, P., Scarborough, R.M., Lewicki, J.A., Porter, J.G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Natriuretic peptide-induced relaxation of myometrium from the pregnant guinea pig is not mediated by guanylate cyclase activation. Carvajal, J.A., Aguan, K., Thompson, L.P., Buhimschi, I.A., Weiner, C.P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Biochemical and cytochemical analyses of BNP-stimulated guanylate cyclase in frog choroid plexus. Vagnetti, D., Tei, S., Secca, T., Santarella, B., Roscani, C., Farnesi, R.M. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction between brain natriuretic peptide and atrial natriuretic peptide in caecal circular smooth muscle cells. Yasuda, O., Chijiiwa, Y., Motomura, Y., Ochiai, T., Nawata, H. Regul. Pept. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits thrombin- and angiotensin II-stimulated endothelin release via cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Kohno, M., Horio, T., Yokokawa, K., Kurihara, N., Takeda, T. Hypertension (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Compared effects of natriuretic peptides on ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Ohbayashi, H., Suito, H., Takagi, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP): a new member of natriuretic peptide family identified in porcine brain. Sudoh, T., Minamino, N., Kangawa, K., Matsuo, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding a precursor for porcine brain natriuretic peptide. Maekawa, K., Sudoh, T., Furusawa, M., Minamino, N., Kangawa, K., Ohkubo, H., Nakanishi, S., Matsuo, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity is present in human plasma. Togashi, K., Hirata, Y., Ando, K., Takei, Y., Kawakami, M., Marumo, F. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
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