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Chemical Compound Review

Phosphaden     [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6- aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4...

Synonyms: Phosaden, Adenovite, POLY A, adenylic acid, AMP, ...
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Disease relevance of adenylic acid


Psychiatry related information on adenylic acid

  • Altered pituitary-thyroid (PT) function (TSH, FT4, FT3 plasma levels) was correlated with symptoms of Eating Disorders (ED) in 137 patients (65 ANR, 12 ANP, 19 ANBP, 26 BN, 8 EDNOS-AN, 7 EDNOS-BN) and 30 controls [6].
  • An elevated responsiveness to rANP-induced cGMP production was observed in the subfornical organ after 4 days of water deprivation; on the contrary, after salt loading the response to the cGMP-generating effects of ANP were less pronounced than those in the corresponding control tissue [7].
  • These results suggest that dopaminergic and adrenergic transmitter systems are involved in the ANP-induced locomotor activity of rats [8].
  • Hence, it may be surmised that in man and rodents ANP reduces anxiety and terminates panic attacks and their neuroendocrine sequelae [9].
  • Since various body organs including the heart are under high physiological stress during water and food deprivation in the desert nomads, we intended to perform molecular biological and histological studies of ANP in the heart of the dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius [10].

High impact information on adenylic acid

  • Cytoplasmic RNA containing the sarc sequences has a sedimentation coefficient of 30S, is linked to polyadenylic acid and is present in polyribosomes in a form which can be released by treatment with EDTA [11].
  • RNA which directs the synthesis of histones in the cell-free system is retained on oligo(dT)-cellulose, even after denaturation in 80% DMSO at 70 degrees C, thereby demonstrating the covalent attachment of polyadenylic acid sequences to the mRNA [12].
  • Anti-p29 and anti-p34 specifically immunoprecipitated the precursors to p29 and p34, respectively, from the cell-free translation products of a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system supplemented with polyadenylic acid-containing messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from JY cells [13].
  • Each of these agents reduced endothelin-stimulated ANP secretion in a dose-dependent fashion and the two in combination proved to be more effective than either agent used alone (VD3: 49%; RA:52%; VD3 + RA:80% inhibition) [14].
  • The coexpression of the natriuretic peptides ANP, BNP and CNP as well as their differential regulation in mouse macrophages was demonstrated by quantitative PCR, HPLC analysis, and specific radioimmunoassays [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of adenylic acid


Biological context of adenylic acid

  • The molecular and structural phenotypes displayed by the double mutants support a model in which the ANP family of MAPKKKs positively regulates cell division and growth and may negatively regulate stress responses [21].
  • Moreover, the extensive distribution of 125I-ANP binding sites in mammalian brain suggests that the possible roles of ANP/ANF-like peptides in brain are not restricted to the central regulation of cardiovascular parameters [22].
  • ANP and BNP (300 ng) reduced pulmonary artery pressure during acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in +/+ mice, but this effect was attenuated in +/- and absent in -/- mice [23].
  • The half life of [125I]ANP in the circulation of homozygotes lacking NPRC is two-thirds longer than in the wild type, although plasma levels of ANP and BNP in heterozygotes and homozygotes are close to the wild type [24].
  • This includes the A- and B-type natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) genes, which encode peptide hormones with crucial roles in the regulation of blood volume and pressure [25].

Anatomical context of adenylic acid

  • Examination of macrophages for ANP mRNA showed a similar response to LPS and zymosan, though only a three- to sixfold increase, confirming previous data [15].
  • Moreover, EPC's and early erythroid cells also synthesize tRNA and a presumed Hb-mRNA which has been identified by its sedimentation rate at 9-12 s and its content of polyadenylic acid [26].
  • We have examined the fates of the progeny of supernumerary embryonic stem cells (O/P teloblasts) generated by microinjecting polyadenylic acid into newborn O/P teloblasts in embryos of the leech, Helobdella triserialis [27].
  • The synthesis rates and half-lives of the individual mitochondrial ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) and polyadenylic acid-containing RNA species in HeLa cells have been determined by analyzing their kinetics of labeling with [5-3H]-uridine and the changes in specific activity of the mitochondrial nucleotide precursor pools [28].
  • The polyadenylic acid selected RNA also showed 8-fold or greater enhancement, showing marked elevation in the level of two major mRNAs, 5.7 and 4.0 kilobases, and two additional minor mRNAs, 2.3 and 1.2 kilobases, as compared with those of a normal human embryonic fibroblast cell line, MRC-5 [29].

Associations of adenylic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of adenylic acid

  • NPR-A mediates the vasorelaxant effect of ANP in pulmonary vasculature [23].
  • Furthermore, the severity of Batten disease in humans and the degree of ANP resistance in yeast are related when the equivalent amino acid replacements in Cln3p and Btn1p are compared [35].
  • At least six other minor 5' ends have been mapped to nucleotide positions -449 to -480 upstream of the DHFR gene and pertain to approximately 1% of the DHFR-specific polysomal polyadenylic acid-containing RNA [36].
  • Our data support a contribution of NTRK2 to the genetic susceptibility of ED, mainly ANP, and ED-related phenotypic traits, such as Harm avoidance and minBMI [37].
  • ANP has no direct effects on cardiac contractility but chronic absence of its receptor, GC-A, results in increased responsiveness to CNP [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of adenylic acid

  • The alpha-hANP dose that produced a 50% vasodilator response was 0.093 +/- 0.016 microgram/min/100 ml FAV (n = 11) and it resulted in a venous plasma concentration of ANP (pANP) of 115 +/- 7 pmol/liter (normal 2 to 80; radioreceptor assay) [39].
  • When cellular polyadenylic acid-containing RNA, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis after denaturation with glyoxal and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane, was reacted with labeled DNA from the smaller coding region, and RNA species of about 1 kilobase in length was detected [40].
  • They have the same percentage of polyadenylic acid-containing RNA, as determined by oligo(dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography, as cytoplasmic polysomes [41].
  • NZW F1 (B/W) mice were subjected to sham surgery or neonatal thymectomy and/or splenectomy and studied for immunoglobulin class of antibodies to double-stranded DNA and polyadenylic acid (Poly A) at 4 to 13 months of age [42].
  • To determine the relative importance of urodilatin versus ANP in the regulation of renal sodium excretion, we studied intact and cardiac-denervated conscious dogs under three experimental conditions: (1) spontaneous sodium excretion, (2) intravenous infusion of saline, and (3) left atrial distension [43].


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  23. NPR-A-Deficient mice show increased susceptibility to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Zhao, L., Long, L., Morrell, N.W., Wilkins, M.R. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor locally modulates the physiological effects of the natriuretic peptide system. Matsukawa, N., Grzesik, W.J., Takahashi, N., Pandey, K.N., Pang, S., Yamauchi, M., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
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