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Gene Review

LPL  -  lipoprotein lipase

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of LPL

  • Conversely, human GH (hGH) treatment had no influence on body weight, increased serum hGH levels, decreased fat cell size (P<.05) and LPL activity (P<.05) but had no influence on lipid accretion [1].
  • First, VLDL acquisition is attenuated by the increased matrix LPL content in the developing atheroma [2].
  • Administration of a large dose of glucose to fasted guinea pigs, which have shown a similar weight loss, but less LPL loss than TCDD-treated animals, had the effect of elevating their adipose LPL levels back to a near normal level, whereas the same treatment caused no significant increase in the LPL levels of TCDD-treated animals [3].

High impact information on LPL

  • In addition, a potential binding site for the triacylglycerol substrate and a carbohydrate-binding domain for lipoprotein lipase are postulated [4].
  • The catalytic activity, molecular size, and heparin-binding characteristics of the released LPL was similar to native LPL [5].
  • Analysis of the time course of LPL dissociation from endothelial cells at 4 degrees C yielded a dissociation rate constant of 3.9 x 10(-6)s-1 [5].
  • Addition of heparin to the medium or pretreatment of the cells with heparinase markedly reduced the amount of LPL internalized, establishing a requirement for cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the process [5].
  • The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells [6].

Biological context of LPL


Anatomical context of LPL

  • We postulate that similar mechanisms may be important in the regulation of LPL activity at the vascular endothelium [6].
  • In previous studies we reported that in the major LPL-producing tissues (muscles, adipose tissue, and mammary gland) the enzyme is made by the major cell types [10].
  • All adipocytes from obese fetuses (domestic and feral) were lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-positive whereas all cells from lean fetuses were negative for LPL activity [11].
  • Based on morphological criteria we can suggest that, contrary to the main LPL-producing tissues, in these tissues the enzyme is made by scattered cells, such as macrophages in the lung and spleen and Kupffer cells in the liver; endothelial cells present but do not synthesize the enzyme, indicating that the endothelial LPL originates in other cells [10].
  • Quantitative analysis of sections of perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue indicated that T4 increased LPL activity (P<.05), slightly increased fat cell size, and more than doubled (P<.05) lipid accretion [1].

Associations of LPL with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of LPL

  • We have previously shown that addition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) markedly increased binding of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins to an endothelial cell-derived matrix, and this enhanced lipoprotein binding was inhibited by apoE [12].

Regulatory relationships of LPL


Other interactions of LPL

  • In muscle, ME and G6PDH activities and GLUT4 mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) in F than in SM and SR pigs; LPL was not detected [14].
  • The LPL and leptin increased continuously [15].
  • The degree of esterase and G6PDH, but not LPL response to HC, was greater during the 90- to 105-day period than during the earlier period [16].
  • In the liver, TNF caused a marked increase in LPL mRNA levels, which are normally very low [17].
  • Although HDL-C levels rose only slightly (P less than 0.09) with exercise, a significant shift was noted in the distribution of cholesterol from the HDL3 to the HDL2 fractions, perhaps mediated by the substantial increase in LPL activity [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LPL


  1. The influence of human growth hormone (GH) and thyroxine (T4) on the differentiation of adipose tissue in the fetus. Hausman, G.J., Wright, J.T., Latimer, A., Watson, R., Martin, R.J. Obes. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Lipoprotein lipase facilitates very low density lipoprotein binding to the subendothelial cell matrix. Saxena, U., Ferguson, E., Auerbach, B.J., Bisgaier, C.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) reduces lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue of the guinea pig. Brewster, D.W., Matsumura, F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Homology of lipoprotein lipase to pancreatic lipase. Ben-Avram, C.M., Ben-Zeev, O., Lee, T.D., Haaga, K., Shively, J.E., Goers, J., Pedersen, M.E., Reeve, J.R., Schotz, M.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolism of endothelial cell-bound lipoprotein lipase. Evidence for heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated internalization and recycling. Saxena, U., Klein, M.G., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids. Saxena, U., Witte, L.D., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and sequencing of porcine lipoprotein lipase cDNA and its use in multiallelic restriction fragment length polymorphism detection. Harbitz, I., Kristensen, T., Kran, S., Davies, W. Anim. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Mapping of the porcine lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene to chromosome 14q12----q14 by in situ hybridization. Gu, F., Harbitz, I., Chowdhary, B.P., Davies, W., Gustavsson, I. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Somatotropin regulates adipose tissue metabolism in neonatal swine. Wang, Y., Fried, S.K., Petersen, R.N., Schoknecht, P.A. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Lipoprotein lipase in lungs, spleen, and liver: synthesis and distribution. Camps, L., Reina, M., Llobera, M., Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G., Olivecrona, T., Vilaró, S. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Adipose tissue cellularity and histochemistry in fetal swine as affected by genetic selection for high or low backfat. Hausman, G.J., Campion, D.R., Thomas, G.B. J. Lipid Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Apolipoprotein B and E basic amino acid clusters influence low-density lipoprotein association with lipoprotein lipase anchored to the subendothelial matrix. Saxena, U., Auerbach, B.J., Ferguson, E., Wölle, J., Marcel, Y.L., Weisgraber, K.H., Hegele, R.A., Bisgaier, C.L. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Reduction of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity as a result of in vivo administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the guinea pig. Brewster, D.W., Matsumura, F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from neonatal pigs consuming maternal or formula milk. Gerfault, V., Louveau, I., Mourot, J., Le Dividich, J. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of porcine adipocyte transcripts during differentiation in vitro and in vivo. McNeel, R.L., Ding, S.T., Smith, E.O., Mersmann, H.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The influence of hydrocortisone (HC) on differentiation of adipose tissue is dependent on fetal age. Hausman, G.J., Wright, J.T. Obes. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Tissue-specific regulation of guinea pig lipoprotein lipase; effects of nutritional state and of tumor necrosis factor on mRNA levels in adipose tissue, heart and liver. Enerbäck, S., Semb, H., Tavernier, J., Bjursell, G., Olivecrona, T. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of exercise on plasma lipids and LDL subclass metabolism in miniature swine. Stucchi, A.F., Terpstra, A.H., Foxall, T.L., Nicolosi, R.J., Smith, S.C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of lipoprotein lipase in ovaries of the guinea pig. Camps, L., Gåfvels, M., Reina, M., Wallin, C., Vilaró, S., Olivecrona, T. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Gender differences in the mechanism of dioxin toxicity in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Enan, E., Overstreet, J.W., Matsumura, F., VandeVoort, C.A., Lasley, B.L. Reprod. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and transport of lipoprotein lipase in perfused guinea pig hearts. Liu, G., Olivecrona, T. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Pulse-chase study on lipoprotein lipase in perfused guinea pig heart. Liu, G.Q., Olivecrona, T. Am. J. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction of lipoprotein lipase with glycosaminoglycans and apolipoprotein C-II: effects of free-fatty-acids. Saxena, U., Goldberg, I.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1990) [Pubmed]
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