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Chemical Compound Review

leucine     (2S)-2-amino-4-methyl- pentanoic acid

Synonyms: Leucinum, Leucina, Leucin, polyleucine, L-Leuzin, ...
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Disease relevance of L-leucine


Psychiatry related information on L-leucine


High impact information on L-leucine

  • The rate of CSP biosynthesis as measured by pulse-labeling with 14C-leucine was not altered [8].
  • The processing of the neutral proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase, normally synthesized in myeloid precursor cells and stored in azurophil granules, were investigated by biosynthetic labeling with 14C-leucine of the monoblastic cell line U-937 [9].
  • A 12-residue-long polyleucine tail is sufficient to anchor synaptobrevin to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane [10].
  • Viability of hepatocytes was documented by trypan blue exclusion (greater than 90%), time-dependent 14C-leucine incorporation into protein, and dose-related incorporation of glucose into glycogen [11].
  • To define further the mechanisms of alloantiserum-mediated suppression and to utilize this suppression as a probe of the cellular events occurring during lymphocyte activation, we have examined the effects of alloantisera on 14C-leucine and 3H-uridine incorporation, earlier events after antigen stimulation [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of L-leucine

  • In 29 volunteers, the basal rate of 14C-leucine incorporation into mucosal protein averaged 41.2 +/- 7.7 X 103 cpm/mg protein (mean +/- S.D.). One and 4 hours after s.c. administration of pentagastrin (6 mug/kg body weight), values were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) by 18.9 and 21.8%, respectively, with respect to the basal level [13].
  • The anabolic activity of formebolone was studied in 7 patients with nephrosis or renal insufficiency by measuring the amount of 14C-leucine incorporated into plasma proteins as an index of protein synthesis [14].
  • The effects of increasing extracellular concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the uptake of 14C-thymidine, 3H-uridine and 14C-leucine by Novikoff hepatoma and normal liver cells have been studied [15].
  • Hypertrophy, the predominant cellular phenomenon following chronic isoproterenol treatment, was associated with a marked elevation of 14C-leucine incorporation into the buffer soluble protein fraction and a less pronounced isotope incorporation into the sedimental sub-cellular fraction as well as continued DNA synthesis [16].

Biological context of L-leucine


Anatomical context of L-leucine

  • Rat embryo fibroblasts were grown in medium containing 14C-leucine and 3H-thymidine [22].
  • Postmitochondrial supernatant, cytosol, and microsomes were exposed to near-ultraviolet light and assayed for incorporation of (3H)leucine [23].
  • After proteolysis and chondroitanase digestion of the proteoglycan, a fraction with absorbance at 260 mn was eluted from Dowex 1 with water which stimulated the incorporation of (3H)leucine by macrophages and inhibited their migration from capillary tubes [24].
  • Incorporation of (3H)leucine into three subfractions of myelin in murine myelin dysgenesis: the quaking mutant [25].
  • 14C-leucine and 3H-glycerol-labeled microsomes and mitochondria were intravenously injected into a series of highly inbred rats [26].

Associations of L-leucine with other chemical compounds

  • With the fibroblasts, a 50% decrease in incorporation of 14C-thymidine was observed after a 22-hr exposure to PtCl4 at a concentration of 0.007mM; higher concentrations were required to inhibit the incorporation of 14C-uridine and 14C-leucine [27].
  • These results seem to indicate that 14C-leucine uptake was dependent on integrity of glycoprotein structure of synaptosomal membranes [28].
  • Decreased uptake of (3H)leucine during progesterone induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes [29].
  • The 14C-leucine assay modified by solubilization of cells with SDS and by trichloroacetic acid precipitation showed increased recovery of labeled protein and, thus, lower cytotoxicity, about 50%, at 4 h [30].
  • Little or no incorporation of 14C-leucine into polypeptides was observed, inspite of tha fact that considerable number of ribosomes and nascent RNA chains were found attached to the isolated nucleoids [31].

Gene context of L-leucine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of L-leucine


  1. Strong aggregation and increased toxicity of polyleucine over polyglutamine stretches in mammalian cells. Dorsman, J.C., Pepers, B., Langenberg, D., Kerkdijk, H., Ijszenga, M., den Dunnen, J.T., Roos, R.A., van Ommen, G.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Transport of an export-defective protein by a highly hydrophobic signal peptide. Rusch, S.L., Kendall, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro uptake of labeled amino acids by red blood cells of children with protein-calorie malnutrition. Mikhail, M.M., Waslien, C.I., Gabr, M.K., Mansour, M.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. DNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm and in a nuclear membrane complex isolated from uninfected and adenovirus 2 infected cells. Shanmugam, G., Bhaduri, S., Arens, M., Green, M. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. The effects of drugs, other foreign compounds, and cigarette smoke on the synthesis of protein by lung slices. Hellstern, K., Curtis, C.G., Upshall, D.G., Powell, G.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Physical activity and inactivity influences on 14C-leucine incorporation in reinnervated rat gastrocnemius. Jaweed, M.M., Herbison, G.J., Ditunno, J.F. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic analysis of the (CTG)n NOTCH4 polymorphism in 65 multiplex bipolar pedigrees. Swift-Scanlan, T., Lan, T.H., Fallin, M.D., Coughlin, J.M., Potash, J.B., DePaulo, J.R., McInnis, M.G. Psychiatr. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of carbohydrates in protein secretion and turnover: effects of tunicamycin on the major cell surface glycoprotein of chick embryo fibroblasts. Olden, K., Pratt, R.M., Yamada, K.M. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Biosynthesis and processing of cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase in the leukemic myeloid cell line U-937. Lindmark, A., Persson, A.M., Olsson, I. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. A 12-residue-long polyleucine tail is sufficient to anchor synaptobrevin to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Whitley, P., Grahn, E., Kutay, U., Rapoport, T.A., von Heijne, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Possible dissociation between insulin binding and insulin action in isolated fetal rat hepatocytes. Sinha, M.K., Miller, J.D., Sperling, M.A., Suchy, F.J., Ganguli, S. Diabetes (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Alloantiserum-mediated supperssion of Ir gene controlled antigen-induced lymphocyte activation: effect on uridine and leucine incorporation. Greenberg, P.D., Bluestein, H.G. J. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of in vivo administration of pentagastrin, secretin, and 13-Nle-Motilin on the in vitro incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein of human gastric mucosa. Mitznegg, P., Domschke, W., Domschke, S., Belohlavek, D., Sprügel, W., Strunz, U., Wünsch, E., Jaeger, E., Demling, L. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Anabolic agents in kidney disease: the effect of formebolone on protein synthesis in patients with renal insufficiency or nephrosis. Esposito, R., Pluvio, M., Giordano, D. Current medical research and opinion. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ on nucleic acids and proteins syntheses by tumor and normal liver cells. Anghileri, L.J., Heidbreder, M. International journal of clinical pharmacology and biopharmacy. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein and DNA levels in the submandibular salivary glands of isoproterenol stimulated mice. Feiglin, B., Reade, P.C. The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetics of chalcone oxidation by peroxide anion catalysed by poly-l-leucine. Carrea, G., Colonna, S., Meek, A.D., Ottolina, G., Roberts, S.M. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Calcium antagonists potentiate P-glycoprotein-independent anticancer drugs in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro. Vilpo, J., Koski, T., Vilpo, L. Haematologica (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Ribosomal protein synthesis in 16 and 19 day gestation fetuses of hypothyroid mothers. Hendrich, C.E., Porterfield, S.P. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Incorporation of 14C-leucine into acid-insoluble material and tRNAleu from light stimulated rat brain. Sayavedra, M.S. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Early postoperative enteral feeding improves whole body protein kinetics in upper gastrointestinal cancer patients. Hochwald, S.N., Harrison, L.E., Heslin, M.J., Burt, M.E., Brennan, M.F. Am. J. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of basal protein degradation in rat embryo fibroblasts by cycloheximide: correlation with activities of lysosomal proteases. Amenta, J.S., Sargus, M.J., Baccino, F.M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Biosynthesis of proteins by the retina. Inactivation by near-ultraviolet light and the effects of tryptophan, epinephrine, and catalase. Matuk, Y., Lou, P., Parker, J.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Separation of a proteoglycan fraction from Kurloff cells stimulating protein synthesis in macrophages. Dean, M.F., Muir, H. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Incorporation of (3H)leucine into three subfractions of myelin in murine myelin dysgenesis: the quaking mutant. Figlewicz, D.A., Druce, M.J. J. Neurochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Lysosomal degradation of cell organelles. III. Uptake and disappearance in Kupffer cells of intravenously injected isotope-labeled mitochondria and microsomes in vivo and in vitro. Glaumann, H., Trump, B.F. Lab. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Toxicity of platinum (IV) salts for cells of pulmonary origin. Waters, M.D., Vaughan, T.O., Abernethy, D.J., Garland, H.R., Cox, C.C., Coffin, D.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of glycoproteins in the uptake of L-14C-leucine by a synaptosomal fraction. Rossowska, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Decreased uptake of (3H)leucine during progesterone induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes. Pennequin, P., Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Drury, K.C., Baulieu, E.E. FEBS Lett. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytotoxic properties of eosinophil granule major basic protein for tumor cells. Kubo, H., Loegering, D.A., Adolphson, C.R., Gleich, G.J. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. In vitro transcription of the tryptophan operon in isolated bacterial nucleoids. Ishii, S., Imamoto, F. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. P400 protein characteristic to Purkinje cells and related proteins in cerebella from neuropathological mutant mice: autoradiographic study by 14C-leucine and phosphorylation. Mikoshiba, K., Okano, H., Tsukada, Y. Dev. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Gastric and duodenal mucosal protein fractional synthesis and growth factor expression in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis before and after eradication of the organism. Winter, T.A., Kidd, M., Kaye, P., Marks, I.N. Dig. Dis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Leucocyte-associated plasma proteins. Association of prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, alpha 1-antitrypsin, transferrin and haptoglobin with human lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and a promyelocytic leukaemic cell line (HL-60). Andersen, M.M. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Lymphotoxin produced by human B- and T-cell lines appears in two distinct forms. Lantz, M., Lindvall, L., Pantazis, P., Olsson, I. Mol. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulatory effects of gastrin and secretin on carcinomas of the stomach and colon. Tanaka, J., Yamaguchi, T., Takahashi, T., Ogata, N., Bando, K., Koyama, K. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  37. Kidney, splanchnic, and leg protein turnover in humans. Insight from leucine and phenylalanine kinetics. Tessari, P., Garibotto, G., Inchiostro, S., Robaudo, C., Saffioti, S., Vettore, M., Zanetti, M., Russo, R., Deferrari, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of insulin and plasma amino acid concentration on leucine metabolism in cirrhosis. Petrides, A.S., Luzi, L., Reuben, A., Riely, C., DeFronzo, R.A. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Uremic serum subfraction inhibits apolipoprotein A-I production by a human hepatoma cell line. Kamanna, V.S., Kashyap, M.L., Pai, R., Bui, D.T., Jin, F.Y., Roh, D.D., Shah, G.M., Kirschenbaum, M.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Protein turnover in striated muscle as visualized by radioautography after (3H)leucine administration. Dadoune, J.P. Exp. Cell Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Monoclonal antibody against tumour-derived cell line shows heterogeneity of altered hepatocytes during AFB1-induced carcinogenesis. Manson, M.M., Green, J.A., Neal, G.E. Int. J. Cancer (1984) [Pubmed]
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