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PRLH  -  prolactin releasing hormone

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PRH, PRRP, PrRP, Prolactin-releasing hormone, Prolactin-releasing peptide
 
 
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Disease relevance of PRLH

 

High impact information on PRLH

  • Four rare silent variants in PrRP and eight polymorphisms in GPR10 were found, two of which (V283I and P305L) altered amino acid sequence but were also found in U.K. Caucasian control subjects [4].
  • Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR10, have been implicated in the central control of appetite and blood pressure [4].
  • A fragment of PRH that includes the homeodomain can bind to TATA box sequences in vitro and can also bind to the TATA box-binding protein [5].
  • Oligomerisation of the Developmental Regulator Proline Rich Homeodomain (PRH/Hex) is Mediated by a Novel Proline-rich Dimerisation Domain [6].
  • PrRP enhanced GH release in several GH-secreting adenomas studied by 25--27%, including GH stimulation in a mixed PRL-GH-cell tumor [7].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of PRLH

 

Biological context of PRLH

  • PrRP gene expression was detected in both the placenta and decidua [9].
  • In conclusion, we have conducted the first genetic study of GPR10 and its ligand PrRP in relation to metabolic phenotypes and have identified an association between GPR10 polymorphisms and diastolic and systolic blood pressure [4].
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) receptor gene by a dopamine 2 Receptor agonist: cloning and characterization of the human PrRP receptor gene and its promoter region [10].
  • One of our clones was found to encode a protein with 90% amino acid identity to human GPR10, which was previously identified as the receptor for prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and has been implicated in lactation, the regulation of food intake and other physiological functions [11].
  • PRH represses transcription from TATA box-containing promoters in intact cells but does not repress transcription from a promoter lacking a TATA box [5].
 

Anatomical context of PRLH

 

Associations of PRLH with chemical compounds

  • PrRP may thus signal through the NPFF receptors in vivo [14].
  • Peptide histidine methionine may be a prolactin-releasing hormone in humans [15].
  • Coincubation with estradiol resulted in enhanced fetal PRL response to PrRP, and GH release was only increased in the presence of estradiol [7].
  • Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate derived from Slavia miltiorrhiza Bunge up-regulate the expression of prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP) in the medulla oblongata in ovariectomized rats [16].
  • Intracerebroventricular injection of neutralizing anti-PrRP antibodies led to increased plasma ACTH level and blood lactate accumulation during running stress, but not during restraint stress [17].
 

Physical interactions of PRLH

  • Moreover, a micromolar level of NPY was able to bind and inhibit completely the PRLH-evoked response in PRLHR1-expressing cells [18].
 

Regulatory relationships of PRLH

  • The recently identified PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) is the first hypothalamic peptide hormone that specifically stimulates PRL production from the pituitary gland [1].
 

Other interactions of PRLH

  • We suggest that an ancestral PRLH peptide started coevolving with a redundant NPY binding receptor, which then became PRLHR, approximately 500 million years ago [18].
  • Further investigation of PrRP and its receptor expression and function will be needed to clarify its potential role in regulating PRL secretion in normal human lactotrophs and pituitary tumors [1].
  • Growth hormone-, beta-thyroid-stimulating hormone-, beta-follicle-stimulating hormone-, beta-luteinizing hormone- or alpha-subunit-positive cells did not test positive for the presence of PrRP receptors [19].
  • The affinity and functional activity of several related RFamide peptides were determined at the human neuropeptide FF receptor subtype 2 (hNPFF2) and the human prolactin-releasing peptide (hPrRP) receptors [14].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRLH

  • These results suggest that the mechanism that STS improved postmenopausal symptoms induced by ovariectomy in rats might be related to the modulation of the blood E2 level and the expression of PrRP in medulla oblongata of ovariectomized rats [16].
  • Electroacupuncture stimulates the expression of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) in the medulla oblongata of ovariectomized rats [20].
  • The putative PrRP was purified from an acid extract of tilapia brain by affinity chromatography with antibody against synthetic C-RFa and HPLC on a reverse-phase ODS-120 column [21].

References

  1. Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide and its receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in normal human pituitary and pituitary adenomas. Zhang, X., Danila, D.C., Katai, M., Swearingen, B., Klibanski, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide and its receptor in the human adrenal glands and tumor tissues of adrenocortical tumors, pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Takahashi, K., Totsune, K., Murakami, O., Sone, M., Noshiro, T., Hayashi, Y., Sasano, H., Shibahara, S. Peptides (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Alternative role for prolactin-releasing peptide in the regulation of food intake. Lawrence, C.B., Celsi, F., Brennand, J., Luckman, S.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of polymorphisms in GPR10, the gene encoding the prolactin-releasing peptide receptor with blood pressure, but not obesity, in a U.K. Caucasian population. Bhattacharyya, S., Luan, J., Challis, B., Schmitz, C., Clarkson, P., Franks, P.W., Middelberg, R., Keogh, J., Farooqi, I.S., Montague, C., Brennand, J., Wareham, N.J., O'Rahilly, S. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. PRH represses transcription in hematopoietic cells by at least two independent mechanisms. Guiral, M., Bess, K., Goodwin, G., Jayaraman, P.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Oligomerisation of the Developmental Regulator Proline Rich Homeodomain (PRH/Hex) is Mediated by a Novel Proline-rich Dimerisation Domain. Soufi, A., Smith, C., Clarke, A.R., Gaston, K., Jayaraman, P.S. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptide stimulates PRL secretion from human fetal pituitary cultures and growth hormone release from cultured pituitary adenomas. Rubinek, T., Hadani, M., Barkai, G., Melmed, S., Shimon, I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Pemphigoid, pemphigus and Pr antigens in adult human keratinocytes grown on nonviable substrates. Woodley, D., Saurat, J.H., Pruniéras, M., Régnier, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide in human placenta and decidua. Yasui, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Jikihara, H., Yamamoto, T., Kanzaki, T., Murata, Y. Endocr. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcriptional regulation of the human PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) receptor gene by a dopamine 2 Receptor agonist: cloning and characterization of the human PrRP receptor gene and its promoter region. Ozawa, A., Yamada, M., Satoh, T., Monden, T., Hashimoto, K., Kohga, H., Hashiba, Y., Sasaki, T., Mori, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (GPR10) regulates body weight homeostasis in mice. Gu, W., Geddes, B.J., Zhang, C., Foley, K.P., Stricker-Krongrad, A. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Structural studies on Hgr3 orphan receptor ligand prolactin-releasing peptide. D'Ursi, A.M., Albrizio, S., Di Fenza, A., Crescenzi, O., Carotenuto, A., Picone, D., Novellino, E., Rovero, P. J. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide and its receptor in the human decidua. Reis, F.M., Viganò, P., Arnaboldi, E., Spritzer, P.M., Petraglia, F., Di Blasio, A.M. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Prolactin releasing peptide has high affinity and efficacy at neuropeptide FF2 receptors. Engström, M., Brandt, A., Wurster, S., Savola, J.M., Panula, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Peptide histidine methionine may be a prolactin-releasing hormone in humans. Sasaki, A., Sato, S., Shinkawa, O., Go, M., Otsuka, T., Sugawara, A., Shimizu, Y., Murakami, O., Hanew, K., Andoh, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate derived from Slavia miltiorrhiza Bunge up-regulate the expression of prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP) in the medulla oblongata in ovariectomized rats. Xiaoa, Y., Qing, W.X., Lan, M.S., Ying, C.B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Possible inhibitory role of prolactin-releasing peptide for ACTH release associated with running stress. Ohiwa, N., Chang, H., Saito, T., Onaka, T., Fujikawa, T., Soya, H. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Origin of the prolactin-releasing hormone (PRLH) receptors: evidence of coevolution between PRLH and a redundant neuropeptide Y receptor during vertebrate evolution. Lagerström, M.C., Fredriksson, R., Bjarnadóttir, T.K., Fridmanis, D., Holmquist, T., Andersson, J., Yan, Y.L., Raudsepp, T., Zoorob, R., Kukkonen, J.P., Lundin, L.G., Klovins, J., Chowdhary, B.P., Postlethwait, J.H., Schiöth, H.B. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Cellular localization of prolactin-releasing peptide receptors in the human pituitary. Abe, T., Koga, N., Tomita, M., Tonoike, T., Kushima, M., Takahashi, K., Sano, Y., Taniyama, M. Acta Neuropathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Electroacupuncture stimulates the expression of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) in the medulla oblongata of ovariectomized rats. Yao, X., Wang, X.Q., Ma, S.L., Chen, B.Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and characterization of a homologue of mammalian prolactin-releasing peptide from the tilapia brain and its effect on prolactin release from the tilapia pituitary. Seale, A.P., Itoh, T., Moriyama, S., Takahashi, A., Kawauchi, H., Sakamoto, T., Fujimoto, M., Riley, L.G., Hirano, T., Grau, E.G. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
 
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