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Gene Review

Prlh  -  prolactin releasing hormone

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PrRP, Prh, Prolactin-releasing hormone, Prolactin-releasing peptide, prrp
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Disease relevance of Prlh


Psychiatry related information on Prlh


High impact information on Prlh

  • Although prolactin is important in pregnancy and lactation in mammals, and is involved in the development of the mammary glands and the promotion of milk synthesis, a specific prolactin-releasing hormone has remained unknown [9].
  • Down-regulation of cellular protein kinase C did not significantly inhibit the PrRP-induced ERK activation, suggesting that a protein kinase C-independent pathway is mainly involved [4].
  • PrRP-induced ERK activation was not dependent on either extracellular Ca(2+) or intracellular Ca(2+) [4].
  • These results may help to gain important insights into PrRP functions within the central nervous system [10].
  • On the other hand, microinjection of PrRP into the medial or comissural nucleus of the solitary tract (mNTS and comNTS, respectively) resulted in less robust changes in IGP in a smaller percentage of animals, accompanied by marked alterations in arterial pressure [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prlh


Biological context of Prlh


Anatomical context of Prlh


Associations of Prlh with chemical compounds

  • This suggests that estrogen suppresses the activation of PrRP neurons [17].
  • PrRP, even at 1 nm, counteracted the inhibition of prolactin release by dopamine [2].
  • The data clearly showed that PrRP cells in DES-administered rats significantly suppressed c-Fos accumulation induced by stress [17].
  • The excitatory effects were blocked by administration of TTX (2 mum) or specific glutamate receptor antagonists, indicating that they resulted from interactions of PrRP at a presynaptic site [11].
  • In addition, administration of PrRP decreased the paired-pulse ratio of EPSCs evoked by two identical stimuli delivered 100 ms apart (from 0.95 +/- 0.08 to 0.71 +/- 0.11, P < 0.05), whereas it did not affect the amplitude of inward currents evoked by exogenous application of L-glutamate to the slice [11].

Physical interactions of Prlh

  • These findings suggest different roles for the peptides during development and indicate that UHR1/GPR10-like receptor could also bind other ligands in addition to PrRP [14].

Other interactions of Prlh

  • These results show that the anorectic actions of PrRP are mediated by central CRH receptors but not by melanocortin receptors-3/4 and that PrRP can modify Vo2 [1].
  • The present results confirm the prolactin-releasing capacity of PrRP at nanomolar doses and reveal a hitherto unrecognized inhibitory activity of this peptide [2].
  • The pair-fed group showed a reduction in UCP-1 mRNA expression at 48 h, which was reversed by PrRP treatment [18].
  • In addition it has been reported that estrogen receptor alpha is detectable in A2 PrRP neurons [17].
  • Although the G-protein coupled receptor GPR10 is highly expressed in the anterior pituitary, the action of its ligand prolactin-releasing peptide-31 (PrRP) in this tissue is controversial [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prlh

  • During validation of RT-PCR techniques we cloned and sequenced a novel splice variant of PrRP from the hypothalamus [16].
  • Congruent with this, PrRP increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs, 154 +/- 33%, 12 of 25 neurones) evoked by electrical stimulation in mNTS or comNTS [11].
  • In this study, microinjection experiments were conducted in vivo in combination with whole-cell recording from neurones in rat medullary slices to test the hypothesis that PrRP plays a role in the central control of gastric motor function, acting within the DVC to modulate the activity of preganglionic vagal motor neurones that supply the stomach [11].
  • We examined the distribution and kinetics of (125)I-PrRP binding in rat tissues together with molecular characterization by chemical cross-linking and Northern blotting [19].
  • Higher concentrations of PrRP (10-100 nmol) similarly suppress spike wave discharges seen during absence seizures in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg, an animal model for this disorder [3].


  1. Anorectic actions of prolactin-releasing peptide are mediated by corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Lawrence, C.B., Liu, Y.L., Stock, M.J., Luckman, S.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Stimulation and inhibition of prolactin release by prolactin-releasing Peptide in rat anterior pituitary cell aggregates. Swinnen, E., Boussemaere, M., Denef, C. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) promotes awakening and suppresses absence seizures. Lin, S.H., Arai, A.C., España, R.A., Berridge, C.W., Leslie, F.M., Huguenard, J.R., Vergnes, M., Civelli, O. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Prolactin-releasing peptide activation of the prolactin promoter is differentially mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase. Kimura, A., Ohmichi, M., Tasaka, K., Kanda, Y., Ikegami, H., Hayakawa, J., Hisamoto, K., Morishige, K., Hinuma, S., Kurachi, H., Murata, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Brainstem prolactin-releasing peptide neurons are sensitive to stress and lactation. Morales, T., Sawchenko, P.E. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Facilitative role of prolactin-releasing peptide neurons in oxytocin cell activation after conditioned-fear stimuli. Zhu, L.L., Onaka, T. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Sleep-promoting activity of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) in the rat. Zhang, S.Q., Inoué, S., Kimura, M. Neuroreport (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Feeding response to a potent prolactin-releasing peptide agonist in lean and obese Zucker rats. Beck, B., Max, J.P., Richy, S., Stricker-Krongrad, A. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A prolactin-releasing peptide in the brain. Hinuma, S., Habata, Y., Fujii, R., Kawamata, Y., Hosoya, M., Fukusumi, S., Kitada, C., Masuo, Y., Asano, T., Matsumoto, H., Sekiguchi, M., Kurokawa, T., Nishimura, O., Onda, H., Fujino, M. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The carboxyl terminus of the prolactin-releasing peptide receptor interacts with PDZ domain proteins involved in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor clustering. Lin, S.H., Arai, A.C., Wang, Z., Nothacker, H.P., Civelli, O. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Prolactin-releasing peptide affects gastric motor function in rat by modulating synaptic transmission in the dorsal vagal complex. Grabauskas, G., Zhou, S.Y., Das, S., Lu, Y., Owyang, C., Moises, H.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of the PRL promoter by Akt through cAMP response element binding protein. Hayakawa, J., Ohmichi, M., Tasaka, K., Kanda, Y., Adachi, K., Nishio, Y., Hisamoto, K., Mabuchi, S., Hinuma, S., Murata, Y. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Nicotine stimulates prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) cells and non-PrRP cells in the solitary nucleus. Sun, B., Nemoto, H., Fujiwara, K., Adachi, S., Inoue, K. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of neuropeptide FF, prolactin-releasing peptide, and the receptor UHR1/GPR10 genes during embryogenesis in the rat. Nieminen, M.L., Nystedt, J., Panula, P. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Tissue distribution of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and its receptor. Fujii, R., Fukusumi, S., Hosoya, M., Kawamata, Y., Habata, Y., Hinuma, S., Sekiguchi, M., Kitada, C., Kurokawa, T., Nishimura, O., Onda, H., Sumino, Y., Fujino, M. Regul. Pept. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Quantification of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) mRNA expression in specific brain regions of the rat during the oestrous cycle and in lactation. Anderson, S.T., Kokay, I.C., Lang, T., Grattan, D.R., Curlewis, J.D. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Estrogen suppresses the stress response of prolactin-releasing peptide-producing cells. Adachi, S., Mochiduki, A., Nemoto, H., Sun, B., Fujiwara, K., Matsumoto, H., Inoue, K. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Repeated administration of the anorectic factor prolactin-releasing peptide leads to tolerance to its effects on energy homeostasis. Ellacott, K.L., Lawrence, C.B., Pritchard, L.E., Luckman, S.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization and distribution of prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP) binding sites in the rat--evidence for a novel binding site subtype in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Satoh, F., Smith, D.M., Gardiner, J.V., Mahmoodi, M., Murphy, K.G., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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