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Gene Review

MYOZ2  -  myozenin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C4orf5, CMH16, CS-1, Calsarcin-1, FATZ-related protein 2, ...
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Disease relevance of MYOZ2

  • Gene encoding the major subunit of CS1 pili of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [1].
  • The mean CS1 'D' scores were 66.46 +/- 1.90 (controls), 66.31 +/- 2.14 (asymptomatic HIV positive) and 56.62 +/- 4.23 (symptomatic AIDS) [2].

High impact information on MYOZ2

  • In addition, the binding of T cells with the CS1 alternatively spliced segment of fibronectin (the binding site recognized by VLA-4) induced pp105 tyrosine phosphorylation [3].
  • The active region of H1 was localized to the pentapeptide IDAPS, which is homologous to LDVPS from the active site of CS1 [4].
  • In complementary studies, blockage of the adhesive function of either the central cell-binding domain (with mAb 333, an antiadhesive monoclonal antibody) or the IIICS (with CS1 peptide), resulted in approximately 60 or 30% reduction in fibronectin-mediated neurite outgrowth, respectively [5].
  • We mutated these residues, singly and in combination, to serine (C109S; CS1, C330S; CS2 and C109S-C330S, Cys-less) [6].
  • 4) Sensitivity to Hg2+ inactivation is increased by pretreatment of oocytes with ss-mercaptoethanol or in the C109S-containing mutants (CS1 and Cys-less) [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of MYOZ2


Biological context of MYOZ2


Anatomical context of MYOZ2

  • The mRNA expressions of both CS-1 and CS-2 are regulated in skeletal muscle similarly during postnatal development but not during prenatal development, indicating differences in function, additionally demonstrated by minute differences in cellular localization within Pig Kidney Epithelial cells (PK15) [9].
  • Some enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli (ETEC) utilize the CS1 pilus for colonization of human intestinal epithelium [1].
  • Plasmid pCS200-carrying wild-type E. coli hosts of serotype O6:K15:H16 that expressed the CS1 or CS2 antigen also caused mannose-resistant agglutination of bovine red blood cells, suggesting that functional fimbriae were present on the bacterial surface [11].
  • In addition, the CFU (colony-forming unit) numbers of methamidophos metabolized bacteria in CS2 and CS3 also increased significantly by 86.1% and 188.9% compared with that of CS1 [12].
  • The nuclear gene rps1 coding for the spinach plastid ribosomal protein CS1 exhibits both a constitutive and leaf-specific expression pattern [13].

Associations of MYOZ2 with chemical compounds

  • A similar time course was seen if CS2 was increased to 100% RMT, but there was no significant effect if CS1 was 70% RMT [14].
  • The present work demonstrates that keratan sulfate (KS) in the glycosaminoglycan-binding region of disc aggrecan is confined to the KS-rich domain of the core protein and is not present in association with chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the CS1 and CS2 domains [15].
  • Subjects unfamiliar with a target food (CS1) were assigned to one of the following three groups which were identical except for order of exposure to stimuli: Taste Aversion Group (CS1-US-CS2-Test), Control Group (US-CS1-CS2-Test), and Overshadowing Group (CS1-CS2-US-Test) [16].
  • SC neurite outgrowth was greatest on the heparin-binding peptide FN-C/H II, while DRG neurite outgrowth was greatest on the a4 beta 1 integrin-binding peptide CS1 [17].
  • In the present study we examined the effects of sequence differences between hGH-1 and hCS-1 5'-flanking DNAs in determining their basal and thyroid hormone-regulated promoter activities [18].

Physical interactions of MYOZ2


Other interactions of MYOZ2

  • Characterization of different expression patterns of calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 in porcine muscle [9].
  • A single base which differed in site II of hCS-1 greatly reduced GHF-1/Pit-1 binding and thus facilitated binding and activation by Sp1 [18].
  • Within the 1-LOD unit support interval, there are 2 strong candidates: ankyrin-B and myozenin 2 [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MYOZ2

  • We also report that CotA plus CotB interact with the CS1 gene products CooC and CooD to form pili that can be visualized by electron microscopy and, conversely, that the CS1 gene products CooA and CooB interact with CotC and CotD to form pili [7].
  • As a confirmatory test, restriction fragment patterns obtained from Sau3AI-digested ETEC plasmid DNA could be used to distinguish between CFA/I, CS1, CS4, CS17, and PCFO166 ETEC in nonradioactive Southern blot hybridisation [21].
  • However, adult Bangladeshi patients infected with CFA/I-expressing bacteria, developed significant plasma IgA antibody responses, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, not only against the homologous fimbriae but also against several heterologous CFs, i.e. CS1, CS2, CS4 and PCFO166 fimbriae [22].
  • Molecular cloning of the plasmid-located determinants for CS1 and CS2 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype O6:K15:H16 of human origin [11].
  • IL-1 also increased CS1 FN protein expression on HUVEC as determined by Western blot analysis [23].


  1. Gene encoding the major subunit of CS1 pili of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Perez-Casal, J., Swartley, J.S., Scott, J.R. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of progression of disease on cognitive performance in HIV/AIDS. Odiase, F., Ogunrin, O., Ogunniyi, A. Journal of the National Medical Association. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Ligation of VLA-4 on T cells stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of a 105-kD protein. Nojima, Y., Rothstein, D.M., Sugita, K., Schlossman, S.F., Morimoto, C. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a novel recognition sequence for the integrin alpha 4 beta 1 in the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. Mould, A.P., Humphries, M.J. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Neurite extension of chicken peripheral nervous system neurons on fibronectin: relative importance of specific adhesion sites in the central cell-binding domain and the alternatively spliced type III connecting segment. Humphries, M.J., Akiyama, S.K., Komoriya, A., Olden, K., Yamada, K.M. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. The amino acid transport system y+L/4F2hc is a heteromultimeric complex. Estévez, R., Camps, M., Rojas, A.M., Testar, X., Devés, R., Hediger, M.A., Zorzano, A., Palacín, M. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Genes for CS2 pili of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and their interchangeability with those for CS1 pili. Froehlich, B.J., Karakashian, A., Sakellaris, H., Scott, J.R. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and characterization of a novel gene (C4orf5) located on human chromosome 4q with specific expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Ahmad, F., Gonzalez, O., Ramagli, L., Xu, J., Siciliano, M.J., Bachinski, L.L., Roberts, R. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of different expression patterns of calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 in porcine muscle. Wang, H., Zhu, Z., Wang, H., Yang, S., Mo, D., Li, K. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Myozenin 2 is a novel gene for human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Osio, A., Tan, L., Chen, S.N., Lombardi, R., Nagueh, S.F., Shete, S., Roberts, R., Willerson, J.T., Marian, A.J. Circ. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of the plasmid-located determinants for CS1 and CS2 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype O6:K15:H16 of human origin. Boylan, M., Coleman, D.C., Scott, J.R., Smyth, C.J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. Wang, M.C., Gong, M., Zang, H.B., Hua, X.M., Yao, J., Pang, Y.J., Yang, Y.H. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Sequence-specific interaction between S1F, a spinach nuclear factor, and a negative cis-element conserved in plastid-related genes. Zhou, D.X., Li, Y.F., Rocipon, M., Mache, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Interactions between pairs of transcranial magnetic stimuli over the human left dorsal premotor cortex differ from those seen in primary motor cortex. Koch, G., Franca, M., Mochizuki, H., Marconi, B., Caltagirone, C., Rothwell, J.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. The structure and degradation of aggrecan in human intervertebral disc. Roughley, P.J., Melching, L.I., Heathfield, T.F., Pearce, R.H., Mort, J.S. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Experimentally induced taste aversions in humans: effects of overshadowing on acquisition. Okifuji, A., Friedman, A.G. Behaviour research and therapy. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Central and peripheral neurite outgrowth differs in preference for heparin-binding versus integrin-binding sequences. Haugen, P.K., McCarthy, J.B., Roche, K.F., Furcht, L.T., Letourneau, P.C. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Sp1 and thyroid hormone receptor differentially activate expression of human growth hormone and chorionic somatomammotropin genes. Tansey, W.P., Catanzaro, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Tcap gene mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. Hayashi, T., Arimura, T., Itoh-Satoh, M., Ueda, K., Hohda, S., Inagaki, N., Takahashi, M., Hori, H., Yasunami, M., Nishi, H., Koga, Y., Nakamura, H., Matsuzaki, M., Choi, B.Y., Bae, S.W., You, C.W., Han, K.H., Park, J.E., Knöll, R., Hoshijima, M., Chien, K.R., Kimura, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Major quantitative trait locus for resting heart rate maps to a region on chromosome 4. Martin, L.J., Comuzzie, A.G., Sonnenberg, G.E., Myklebust, J., James, R., Marks, J., Blangero, J., Kissebah, A.H. Hypertension (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Genotypic detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonisation factors. Grewal, H.M., Sommerfelt, H. APMIS (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Infection with colonization factor antigen I-expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli boosts antibody responses against heterologous colonization factors in primed subjects. Rudin, A., Wiklund, G., Wennerås, C., Qadri, F. Epidemiol. Infect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of CS1 fibronectin expression and function by IL-1 in endothelial cells. Boyle, D.L., Shi, Y., Gay, S., Firestein, G.S. Cell. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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