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Gene Review

MYOZ1  -  myozenin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CS-2, Calsarcin-2, FATZ, Filamin-, actinin-and telethonin-binding protein, MYOZ, ...
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Disease relevance of MYOZ1

  • Thus, myozenin is a skeletal muscle Z line protein that may be a good candidate gene for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or other neuromuscular disorders [1].
  • We have cloned and sequenced the DNA needed for production of CS2 pili in Escherichia coli K-12 [2].
  • This study used vection-induced symptoms of motion sickness as an unconditioned stimulus to condition food aversions in humans and to evaluate the efficacy of an overshadowing agent (novel flavored candy: CS2) to attenuate acquisition of the aversion [3].
  • None of the monkeys developed retinal microaneurysms or hemorrhages, major accepted signs of visual toxicity in CS2 exposed humans; thus, permanent visual loss may result from carbon disulfide exposure even in the absence of retinal vascular effects [4].
  • Expression of CS2 and CS3 reduced the invasiveness of Shigella for HeLa cells and slowed the intracellular growth rate [5].

Psychiatry related information on MYOZ1

  • Exposure to CS2 increased the intensity of apomorphine-induced stereotypy in male rats without increasing the reaction time [6].
  • Data were from 222 workers in the viscose industry exposed to CS2 and 191 employees from the same factory with similar physical and psychological stress factors but without occupational contact with neurotoxic substances [7].

High impact information on MYOZ1

  • The large mass of sulfur-containing material, more than 10(14) grams in S2 alone, indicates that many of the sulfur-containing molecules S2, CS2, CS, H2S, and S+ may be derived from a sulfur-bearing parent molecule native to Jupiter [8].
  • The MYOZ gene has six exons and maps to human chromosome 10q22.1-q22 [1].
  • Myozenin is predicted to be a 32-kDa, globular protein with a central glycine-rich domain flanked by alpha-helical regions with no strong homologies to any known genes [1].
  • We mutated these residues, singly and in combination, to serine (C109S; CS1, C330S; CS2 and C109S-C330S, Cys-less) [9].
  • To shed light on the mechanism of clonal selection of androgen-independent tumors, mixed tumors with SC 115 and CS 2 were prepared, and growth of these tumors was examined in vivo and in vitro [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of MYOZ1

  • Plasmid pCS200-carrying wild-type E. coli hosts of serotype O6:K15:H16 that expressed the CS1 or CS2 antigen also caused mannose-resistant agglutination of bovine red blood cells, suggesting that functional fimbriae were present on the bacterial surface [11].
  • Guinea pigs immunized intranasally with CVD 1204(pGA1-CS2) or CVD 1204(pGA1-CS3), or with a mixture of these strains, developed secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in tears and serum IgG antibodies against Shigella lipopolysaccharide, CS2, and CS3 antigens [5].
  • Potential excited states are identified for the magnetron (MGN) values for quinones, thermal charge transfer (TCT) values for CS2, C6F6, SF6 and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) values for O2, NO, nitromethane, and the nucleic acids [12].
  • Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and two coronary heart disease risk indices were assessed for a group of 70 male viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and individually matched for age, height, and weight with 70 male referents [13].
  • Simultaneous removal of H2S and CS2 was studied with a peat biofilter inoculated with a Thiobacillus strain that oxidizes both compounds in an acidic environment [14].

Biological context of MYOZ1

  • On the basis of the information known about its binding partners, we could envisage a central role for FATZ in the myofibrillogenesis [15].
  • After screening our muscle expressed sequence tag data base and the public expressed sequence tag data bases, we were able to assemble two other muscle transcripts that show a high level of identity with FATZ in two different domains [15].
  • A single TMS pulse (110% resting motor threshold, RMT) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (CS2) suppresses the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from a test pulse (TS) over the right motor cortex (M1), and facilitates MEPs from the left motor cortex [16].
  • Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the proteins encoded by each operon define three subclasses, 5a (CFA/I, CS4, and CS14), 5b (CS1, CS17, CS19, and PCFO71), and 5c (CS2) [17].
  • We sequenced the gene clusters encoding coli surface antigen 4 (CS4), CS14, CS17, CS19, and putative colonization factor antigen O71 (PCFO71) and analyzed the deduced proteins and the published homologs of CFA/I, CS1, and CS2 [17].

Anatomical context of MYOZ1

  • The level of FATZ protein in muscle cells increases during differentiation, being clearly detectable before the onset of myosin [15].
  • In addition, the binding of enterotoxigenic E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CS2, CS4, and PCFO166 to enterocyte-like cell-line Caco-2 was inhibited by both MAbs [18].
  • The mRNA expressions of both CS-1 and CS-2 are regulated in skeletal muscle similarly during postnatal development but not during prenatal development, indicating differences in function, additionally demonstrated by minute differences in cellular localization within Pig Kidney Epithelial cells (PK15) [19].
  • In addition, the CFU (colony-forming unit) numbers of methamidophos metabolized bacteria in CS2 and CS3 also increased significantly by 86.1% and 188.9% compared with that of CS1 [20].
  • However, in one parasite line we were able to re-select for adhesion to bovine trachea CSA associated with transcription of two var genes, var-CS2 and varP [21].

Associations of MYOZ1 with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, by using a glutathione S-transferase overlay assay we find that FATZ also binds telethonin [15].
  • The present work demonstrates that keratan sulfate (KS) in the glycosaminoglycan-binding region of disc aggrecan is confined to the KS-rich domain of the core protein and is not present in association with chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the CS1 and CS2 domains [22].
  • Mutation CS2 had no effect on the expressed system y+L-like transport activity, whereas C109S-containing mutants (CS1 and Cys-less) retained only partial y+L-like transport activity (30 to 50% of wild type) [9].
  • An appetitive sucrose solution (a conditioned stimulus: CS1) and weak vibration (another conditioned stimulus: CS2) were first associated, and then the CS2 and an aversive KCl solution (an unconditioned stimulus: UCS) were done [23].
  • The Overshadowing group consumed significantly more of the target food than did the Taste Aversion Group. Considering only subjects unfamiliar with the overshadowing agent, those in the Overshadowing group rated the agent (CS2) as significantly more aversive than the Taste Aversion and Control groups [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MYOZ1

  • Radiation hybrid mapping data indicate that CS-1 and CS-2 map to q2.1-2.5 of pig chromosome 8 (SSC8) and q2.4 of pig chromosome 14 (SSC14), respectively [19].
  • Molecular cloning of the plasmid-located determinants for CS1 and CS2 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype O6:K15:H16 of human origin [11].
  • Off-resonant fifth-order response function for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy of liquids CS2 and H2O [24].
  • In all patients standard 12-lead ECG investigations were performed, as well as 24-h ECG monitoring, using an Oxford Medical System device with two precordial leads CM5 and CS2, according to the Holter method [25].
  • The isooctane was then analysed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for CS2, which provided a quantitative result for dithiocarbamates [26].


  1. Myozenin: an alpha-actinin- and gamma-filamin-binding protein of skeletal muscle Z lines. Takada, F., Vander Woude, D.L., Tong, H.Q., Thompson, T.G., Watkins, S.C., Kunkel, L.M., Beggs, A.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Genes for CS2 pili of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and their interchangeability with those for CS1 pili. Froehlich, B.J., Karakashian, A., Sakellaris, H., Scott, J.R. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Experimentally induced taste aversions in humans: effects of overshadowing on acquisition. Okifuji, A., Friedman, A.G. Behaviour research and therapy. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Carbon disulfide effects on the visual system. I. Visual thresholds and ophthalmoscopy. Merigan, W.H., Wood, R.W., Zehl, D., Eskin, T.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Delta guaBA strain CVD 1204 expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS2 and CS3 fimbriae as a live mucosal vaccine against Shigella and ETEC infection. Altboum, Z., Barry, E.M., Losonsky, G., Galen, J.E., Levine, M.M. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of carbon disulphide on the stereotypic effect of dopamine agonists. Magos, L. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurotoxicity of long-term low-level exposure to carbon disulphide: results of questionnaire, clinical neurological examination and neuropsychological testing. Reinhardt, F., Drexler, H., Bickel, A., Claus, D., Angerer, J., Ulm, K., Lehnert, G., Neundörfer, B. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. HST spectroscopic observations of Jupiter after the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. Noll, K.S., McGrath, M.A., Trafton, L.M., Atreya, S.K., Caldwell, J.J., Weaver, H.A., Yelle, R.V., Barnet, C., Edgington, S. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The amino acid transport system y+L/4F2hc is a heteromultimeric complex. Estévez, R., Camps, M., Rojas, A.M., Testar, X., Devés, R., Hediger, M.A., Zorzano, A., Palacín, M. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Progression and selection in heterogeneous tumor composed of androgen-responsive Shionogi carcinoma 115 and its autonomous subline (Chiba subline 2). Ichikawa, T., Akimoto, S., Hayata, I., Shimazaki, J. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of the plasmid-located determinants for CS1 and CS2 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype O6:K15:H16 of human origin. Boylan, M., Coleman, D.C., Scott, J.R., Smyth, C.J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular electron affinities and the calculation of the temperature dependence of the electron-capture detector response. Chen, E.C., Chen, E.S. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Assessment of coronary heart disease risk among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide at concentrations of about 30 mg/m3. Franco, G., Malamani, T., Germani, L., Candura, F. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide removal with a peat biofilter. Hartikainen, T., Ruuskanen, J., Martikainen, P.J. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. FATZ, a filamin-, actinin-, and telethonin-binding protein of the Z-disc of skeletal muscle. Faulkner, G., Pallavicini, A., Comelli, A., Salamon, M., Bortoletto, G., Ievolella, C., Trevisan, S., Kojic', S., Dalla Vecchia, F., Laveder, P., Valle, G., Lanfranchi, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Interactions between pairs of transcranial magnetic stimuli over the human left dorsal premotor cortex differ from those seen in primary motor cortex. Koch, G., Franca, M., Mochizuki, H., Marconi, B., Caltagirone, C., Rothwell, J.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolutionary and functional relationships of colonization factor antigen i and other class 5 adhesive fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Anantha, R.P., McVeigh, A.L., Lee, L.H., Agnew, M.K., Cassels, F.J., Scott, D.A., Whittam, T.S., Savarino, S.J. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Monoclonal antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) that cross-react immunologically with heterologous CFAs. Rudin, A., McConnell, M.M., Svennerholm, A.M. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of different expression patterns of calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 in porcine muscle. Wang, H., Zhu, Z., Wang, H., Yang, S., Mo, D., Li, K. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. Wang, M.C., Gong, M., Zang, H.B., Hua, X.M., Yao, J., Pang, Y.J., Yang, Y.H. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. VAR2CSA is the principal ligand for chondroitin sulfate A in two allogeneic isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Duffy, M.F., Maier, A.G., Byrne, T.J., Marty, A.J., Elliott, S.R., O'Neill, M.T., Payne, P.D., Rogerson, S.J., Cowman, A.F., Crabb, B.S., Brown, G.V. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The structure and degradation of aggrecan in human intervertebral disc. Roughley, P.J., Melching, L.I., Heathfield, T.F., Pearce, R.H., Mort, J.S. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Sensory preconditioning for feeding response in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Kojima, S., Kobayashi, S., Yamanaka, M., Sadamoto, H., Nakamura, H., Fujito, Y., Kawai, R., Sakakibara, M., Ito, E. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Off-resonant fifth-order response function for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy of liquids CS2 and H2O. Saito, S., Ohmine, I. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. 24-h ECG monitoring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Tłustochowicz, W., Piotrowicz, R., Cwetsch, A., Raczka, A., Kramarz, E., Nowak, J. Eur. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in occupational hygiene sampling devices using the isooctane method and comparison with an automatic thermal desorption (ATD) method. Coldwell, M.R., Pengelly, I., Rimmer, D.A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
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