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Gene Review

GKN1  -  gastrokine 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 18 kDa antrum mucosa protein, AMP-18, AMP18, BRICD1, CA11, ...
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Disease relevance of GKN1

  • Outwith the stomach, gastrokine 1 was found only in epithelia showing gastric metaplasia eg Barrett's oesophagus, the ulcer-associated cell lineage and ovarian mucinous neoplasms [1].
  • Gastrokine 1 was highly expressed in normal stomach, where it was located in the superficial/foveolar gastric epithelium, but was absent from gastric carcinomas [1].
  • One, CA11, was a novel gene expressed predominantly in the stomach and was depleted in all of the gastric cancer cell lines examined [2].
  • Blinded interpretations of a quick (4 min), low resolution (3.4 mm x 1.7 mm pixel) T2W sequence (matrix 64 x 256, FOV 21.7 cm phase x 43.5 cm frequency) were compared to the 17 min standard resolution (1.7 mm x 1.7 mm) T2W sequence (256 x 256 matrix, FOV 43 x 43 cm) in 25 patients suspected of having liver metastasis [3].
  • Three glomus tumors of the fingers were detected using a dedicated hand and wrist low field (0.1 T) MR imager equipped with solenoidal coils allowing a FOV of 2 cm [4].

High impact information on GKN1

  • Gastrokine 1 is abundantly and specifically expressed in superficial gastric epithelium, down-regulated in gastric carcinoma, and shows high evolutionary conservation [1].
  • The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco-2/bbe (C2) cells [5].
  • AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins [5].
  • To resolve the problem, a novel 2D reduced FOV single-shot diffusion-weighted EPI (2D ss-rFOV-DWEPI) pulse sequence applicable for high resolution diffusion-weighted MRI of local anatomic regions, such as brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and optic nerve, has been developed [6].
  • However, undersampling artifacts that originate from anatomy superior or inferior to a coronal imaging FOV may severely degrade the image quality [7].

Biological context of GKN1

  • CONCLUSION: A possible pathological role for down-regulation of FOV in gastric carcinogenesis was demonstrated [8].
  • MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5 Tesla scanner (200FX; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) to obtain noncontrast T1-weighted SE images (TR/TE; 500/15 or 400/15ms), with a slice thickness of 5 mm on coronal images, 10 mm or 7 mm on sagittal images, FOV 15x15 cm, matrix 256x256, using a surface coil with patients in the supine position [9].

Anatomical context of GKN1

  • Antrum extracts and recombinant human AMP-18 exhibit growth-promoting activity on epithelial cells that can be blocked by the specific antisera [10].
  • To reveal the implication in gastric cancer pathogenesis of the novel human gene referred to as CA11, which was recently isolated by a differential display technique using normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissue, we examined CA11 expression in 50 primary gastric cancers and also introduced the CA11 gene into gastric cancer cells [11].
  • With 3D BH MRA, the entire vessel territory both in abdominal aorta and in iliac vessels was visualized in all cases without signal falloff in the FOV [12].
  • Thirty-five healthy fetuses (22-42 weeks) were examined on a 1.5- T MR system using sagittal T2w single-shot fast spin-echo imaging (TR indefinite, TE 90 ms, slice thickness/gap 3-5/0 mm, FOV 26-40 cm, NEX 0.5) [13].
  • In 12 WAD patients and six asymptomatic controls the alar ligaments were imaged in the coronal plane with an 0.5-T MRI system using a quadrature neck coil and applying a fast spin echo proton density/T2-weighted sequence (TR/TE/ETL 2,500/18 ms/16, FOV 140 mm, matrix 200 x 256, 16 x 3 mm slices, scan time 25 min) [14].

Associations of GKN1 with chemical compounds

  • The protocol included axial images focused on the IAM: HR 2D-FSE T2w images (4000/63, ETL = 16, 3-mm sections with 1.5 mm overlap, 18 FOV, 512 x 384 matrix) and gadolinium-enhanced T1w images (600/23, 3-mm sections, 18 FOV, 256 x 192 matrix) [15].
  • We investigated TR, TE, Matrix, FOV, and coil selection in terms of CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) and SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) by comparing axial images and/or three-dimensional images [16].
  • Biopsies of the left vastus lateralis muscle and T1 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (1.5 Tesla, TR/TE 600/20, 4 nex, 48 cm rectangular FOV, 10 mm transaxial slices at 5-mm intervals) of both thighs were used to examine muscle morphology [17].

Other interactions of GKN1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GKN1

  • Northern blot analysis showed that expression of the CA11 gene in cancer tissue was down-regulated compared with normal tissue [11].
  • Furthermore, by casting the FOV reduction of parallel imaging techniques as a dimensionality reduction of the k-space that is NF-encoded, one can obtain a speed-up of each digital NF spatial excitation in addition to accelerated imaging [19].
  • Immunodiffusion tests indicated that CA-11 hemolysin was immunologically related to AH-1 hemolysin but possessed unique antigenic determinants [20].
  • Using a bandwidth of +/-83 kHz, well-resolved single-shot images of the human brain, as well as good quality fMRI data sets were obtained with a matrix of 192 x 192 over 16 x 16 cm2 FOV using half k-space techniques [21].
  • There was only one solitary lesion located outside of FOV of PET scan in the femur, but with clinical information that was no problem for PET diagnosis [22].


  1. Gastrokine 1 is abundantly and specifically expressed in superficial gastric epithelium, down-regulated in gastric carcinoma, and shows high evolutionary conservation. Oien, K.A., McGregor, F., Butler, S., Ferrier, R.K., Downie, I., Bryce, S., Burns, S., Keith, W.N. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of two novel genes, down-regulated in gastric cancer. Yoshikawa, Y., Mukai, H., Hino, F., Asada, K., Kato, I. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Low resolution spin echo: a simple timesaving technique for MRI liver exams. Butler-Lewis, R.J., Erdman, W.A., Jayson, H.T., Barker, B.A., Archer, B.T., Peshock, R.M. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of glomus tumor of the finger by dedicated MRI at 0.1 T. Constantinesco, A., Arbogast, S., Foucher, G., Vinée, P., Choquet, P., Brunot, B. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins. Walsh-Reitz, M.M., Huang, E.F., Musch, M.W., Chang, E.B., Martin, T.E., Kartha, S., Toback, F.G. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. High-resolution DTI with 2D interleaved multislice reduced FOV single-shot diffusion-weighted EPI (2D ss-rFOV-DWEPI). Jeong, E.K., Kim, S.E., Guo, J., Kholmovski, E.G., Parker, D.L. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Artifact reduction in undersampled projection reconstruction MRI of the peripheral vessels using selective excitation. Du, J., Thornton, F.J., Fain, S.B., Korosec, F.R., Browning, F., Grist, T.M., Mistretta, C.A. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteomic alteration in gastic adenocarcinomas from Japanese patients. Yoshihara, T., Kadota, Y., Yoshimura, Y., Tatano, Y., Takeuchi, N., Okitsu, H., Umemoto, A., Yamauchi, T., Itoh, K. Mol. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of small internal mammary lymph node metastases in breast cancer by MRI. Kinoshita, T., Odagiri, K., Andoh, K., Doiuchi, T., Sugimura, K., Shiotani, S., Asaga, T. Radiation medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel mitogenic protein that is highly expressed in cells of the gastric antrum mucosa. Martin, T.E., Powell, C.T., Wang, Z., Bhattacharyya, S., Walsh-Reitz, M.M., Agarwal, K., Toback, F.G. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Human stomach-specific gene, CA11, is down-regulated in gastric cancer. Shiozaki, K., Nakamori, S., Tsujie, M., Okami, J., Yamamoto, H., Nagano, H., Dono, K., Umeshita, K., Sakon, M., Furukawa, H., Hiratsuka, M., Kasugai, T., Ishiguro, S., Monden, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. 3D breath-hold contrast-enhanced MRA: a preliminary experience in aorta and iliac vascular disease. Shetty, A.N., Shirkhoda, A., Bis, K.G., Ellwood, R., Li, D. Journal of computer assisted tomography. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. MR assessment of fetal lung development using lung volumes and signal intensities. Keller, T.M., Rake, A., Michel, S.C., Seifert, B., Wisser, J., Marincek, B., Kubik-Huch, R.A. European radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. MR imaging of alar ligament in whiplash-associated disorders: an observer study. Wilmink, J.T., Patijn, J. Neuroradiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. MR imaging of acoustic neuroma with high resolution fast spin echo T2-weighted sequence. Soulié, D., Cordoliani, Y.S., Vignaud, J., Cosnard, G. European journal of radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. High-resolution MRI of the labyrinth: optimization of scan parameters with 3D-FSE. Sakata, M., Harada, K., Shirase, R., Kumagai, A., Ogasawara, M. Nippon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of short-term unweighting on human skeletal muscle strength and size. Adams, G.R., Hather, B.M., Dudley, G.A. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene chip analyses reveal differential genetic responses to iron deficiency in rat duodenum and jejunum. Collins, J.F. Biol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Non-Fourier-encoded parallel MRI using multiple receiver coils. Mitsouras, D., Hoge, W.S., Rybicki, F.J., Kyriakos, W.E., Edelman, A., Zientara, G.P. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification and characterization of an Aeromonas hydrophila hemolysin. Asao, T., Kozaki, S., Kato, K., Kinoshita, Y., Otsu, K., Uemura, T., Sakaguchi, G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Single-shot half k-space high-resolution gradient-recalled EPI for fMRI at 3 Tesla. Jesmanowicz, A., Bandettini, P.A., Hyde, J.S. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Diagnostic accuracy of bone metastases detection in cancer patients: comparison between bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET. Fujimoto, R., Higashi, T., Nakamoto, Y., Hara, T., Lyshchik, A., Ishizu, K., Kawashima, H., Kawase, S., Fujita, T., Saga, T., Togashi, K. Annals of nuclear medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
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