The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TDG  -  thymine-DNA glycosylase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase, Thymine-DNA glycosylase, hTDG
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TDG


High impact information on TDG

  • Details of the MUG structure explain its thymine DNA-glycosylase activity and the specificity for G:U/T mispairs, which derives from direct recognition of guanine on the complementary strand [6].
  • A corresponding catalytic mechanism could apply to the DNA glycosylases TDG and SMUG1, which belong to the same structural superfamily as UDG [7].
  • Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) initiates repair of G/T and G/U mismatches, commonly associated with CpG islands, by removing thymine and uracil moieties [8].
  • We report that TDG associates with transcriptional coactivators CBP and p300 and that the resulting complexes are competent for both the excision step of repair and histone acetylation [8].
  • SUMO conjugation dramatically reduces the DNA substrate and AP site binding affinity of TDG, and this is associated with a significant increase in enzymatic turnover in reactions with a G*U substrate and the loss of G*T processing activity [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of TDG

  • In the present experiments, we employed the mesophilic Escherichia coli enzyme deoxyinosine 3'-endonuclease (Endo V), and a novel thermostable T/G DNA glycosylase, TDG mismatch repair enzyme (TDG-MRE) [10].
  • The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl ester of MPhA) [11].
  • The 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilon C) residue might have biological role in vivo since it is recognized and efficiently excised in vitro by the E. coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (MUG) and the human thymine-DNA glycosylase (hTDG) [12].

Biological context of TDG


Anatomical context of TDG


Associations of TDG with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TDG


Other interactions of TDG

  • CONCLUSION: Our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism of SUMO modification mediated modulation of enzymatic properties of TDG [15].
  • TDG remains bound to this unstable repair intermediate, indicating that its transmission to the downstream-acting AP endonuclease is a coordinated process [15].
  • We studied two genes coding for proteins removing small DNA adducts by direct repair (MGMT), or mispaired DNA bases by base excision repair (TDG) [1].
  • TDG and MBD4 may have specialized roles in the repair of U and T in mismatches in CpG contexts [24].
  • CONCLUSION: We detected novel germline alterations in NEIL2, TDG and UNG patients with CRC [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TDG

  • Northern blot analysis showed that TDG is expressed at approximately the same level in all human tissues analyzed [26].
  • TDG converts G.T heteroduplexes to G.abasic sites, rendering DNA templates refractory to PCR amplification [27].
  • The patients who were the most likely to benefit (ie, those with a greater improvement in pulmonary function and a significant reduction in the hospitalization rate) from TDG were those with more severe obstruction (ie, FEV(1), < 30% of predicted) [28].
  • Routine urinalysis was performed and the urine analyzed for TDG using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [29].
  • TDG has been compared with hippuran and DTPA in normal subjects and the derived gamma camera renograms of both the whole kidney and parenchymal regions subjected to deconvolution analysis using the matrix algorithm [30].


  1. Polymorphisms in TDG and MGMT genes - epidemiological and functional study in lung cancer patients from Poland. Krześniak, M., Butkiewicz, D., Samojedny, A., Chorazy, M., Rusin, M. Ann. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein interacts physically and functionally with thymine DNA glycosylase. Shimizu, Y., Iwai, S., Hanaoka, F., Sugasawa, K. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Base J, found in nuclear DNA of Trypanosoma brucei, is not a target for DNA glycosylases. Ulbert, S., Eide, L., Seeberg, E., Borst, P. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Human thymine-DNA glycosylase maps at chromosome 12q22-q24.1: a region of high loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancer. Schmutte, C., Baffa, R., Veronese, L.M., Murakumo, Y., Fishel, R. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard: analysis of in vitro biotransformation by mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases using nuclear magnetic resonance. Brimfield, A.A., Novak, M.J., Hodgson, E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystal structure of a G:T/U mismatch-specific DNA glycosylase: mismatch recognition by complementary-strand interactions. Barrett, T.E., Savva, R., Panayotou, G., Barlow, T., Brown, T., Jiricny, J., Pearl, L.H. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Uracil-DNA glycosylase acts by substrate autocatalysis. Dinner, A.R., Blackburn, G.M., Karplus, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Association of CBP/p300 acetylase and thymine DNA glycosylase links DNA repair and transcription. Tini, M., Benecke, A., Um, S.J., Torchia, J., Evans, R.M., Chambon, P. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Modification of the human thymine-DNA glycosylase by ubiquitin-like proteins facilitates enzymatic turnover. Hardeland, U., Steinacher, R., Jiricny, J., Schär, P. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutation identification DNA analysis system (MIDAS) for detection of known mutations. Bazar, L.S., Collier, G.B., Vanek, P.G., Siles, B.A., Kow, Y.W., Doetsch, P.W., Cunningham, R.P., Chirikjian, J.G. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents. Sklyar, V.I., Mosolova, T.P., Kucherenko, I.A., Degtyarova, N.N., Varfolomeyev, S.D., Kalyuzhnyi, S.V. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase in repair of 3,N4-ethenocytosine in vivo. Jurado, J., Maciejewska, A., Krwawicz, J., Laval, J., Saparbaev, M.K. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. SUMO-1-dependent allosteric regulation of thymine DNA glycosylase alters subnuclear localization and CBP/p300 recruitment. Mohan, R.D., Rao, A., Gagliardi, J., Tini, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. The DNA glycosylase T:G mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase represses thyroid transcription factor-1-activated transcription. Missero, C., Pirro, M.T., Simeone, S., Pischetola, M., Di Lauro, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Functionality of human thymine DNA glycosylase requires SUMO-regulated changes in protein conformation. Steinacher, R., Schär, P. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficient removal of uracil from G.U mispairs by the mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase from HeLa cells. Neddermann, P., Jiricny, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Genomic analysis of the thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) gene on 12q22-q24.1 in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Yatsuoka, T., Furukawa, T., Abe, T., Yokoyama, T., Sunamura, M., Kobari, M., Matsuno, S., Horii, A. Int. J. Pancreatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of coding single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations by combination of genome tiling arrays and enrichment/depletion of mismatch cDNAs. Liu, M.M., Weissman, S.M., Tang, L. Anal. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Substrate specificity and sequence preference of G:T mismatch repair: incision at G:T, O6-methylguanine:T, and G:U mispairs in DNA by human cell extracts. Lari, S.U., Al-Khodairy, F., Paterson, M.C. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. T:G mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase potentiates transcription of estrogen-regulated genes through direct interaction with estrogen receptor alpha. Chen, D., Lucey, M.J., Phoenix, F., Lopez-Garcia, J., Hart, S.M., Losson, R., Buluwela, L., Coombes, R.C., Chambon, P., Schär, P., Ali, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Thymine DNA glycosylase. Hardeland, U., Bentele, M., Lettieri, T., Steinacher, R., Jiricny, J., Schär, P. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) excise thymine glycol (Tg) from a Tg:G mispair. Yoon, J.H., Iwai, S., O'Connor, T.R., Pfeifer, G.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Association of Dnmt3a and thymine DNA glycosylase links DNA methylation with base-excision repair. Li, Y.Q., Zhou, P.Z., Zheng, X.D., Walsh, C.P., Xu, G.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Uracil in DNA--occurrence, consequences and repair. Krokan, H.E., Drabløs, F., Slupphaug, G. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 genes in familial colorectal cancer predisposition. Broderick, P., Bagratuni, T., Vijayakrishnan, J., Lubbe, S., Chandler, I., Houlston, R.S. BMC Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Chromosomal localizations and molecular analysis of TDG gene-related sequences. Sard, L., Tornielli, S., Gallinari, P., Minoletti, F., Jiricny, J., Lettieri, T., Pierotti, M.A., Sozzi, G., Radice, P. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of A.T to G.C mutations by erroneous repair of depurinated DNA following estrogen treatment of the mammary gland of ACI rats. Mailander, P.C., Meza, J.L., Higginbotham, S., Chakravarti, D. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Triple inhaled drug protocol for the treatment of acute severe asthma. Rodrigo, G.J., Rodrigo, C. Chest (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A cutaneous full-thickness liquid sulfur mustard burn model in weanling swine: clinical pathology and urinary excretion of thiodiglycol. Graham, J.S., Reid, F.M., Smith, J.R., Stotts, R.R., Tucker, E.S., Shumaker, S.M., Niemuth, N.A., Janny, S.J. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. 99Tcm-TDG renography with deconvolution analysis: a comparative study with 99Tcm-DTPA and 123I-hippuran. Bevis, C.R., Lawson, R.S., Shields, R.A., Testa, H.J. Nuclear medicine communications. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities