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Gene Review

WRB  -  tryptophan rich basic protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CHD5, Congenital heart disease 5 protein, Tail-anchored protein insertion receptor WRB, Tryptophan-rich basic protein
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Disease relevance of WRB

  • Additionally, we have accurately located a previously described gene, the WRB gene, between the markers ACTL5-D21S268 within this Down Syndrome Region-2 [1].
  • Binding of the 5' terminal sequence of virion RNA (vRNA) to the polymerase activates a tryptophan-rich, cap-binding sequence on the PB2 subunit [2].
  • A tryptophan-rich repeat motif that is highly conserved between these proteins, as well as in the reverse transcriptase from simian immunodeficiency virus, has been postulated to be involved in hydrophobic subunit interactions [3].
  • A conserved tryptophan-rich motif in the membrane-proximal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 ectodomain is important for Env-mediated fusion and virus infectivity [4].
  • Among the isolated phage clones, we found that tryptophan-rich peptide sequences appeared repetitively in successive cycles of phage library panning [5].

High impact information on WRB

  • Since deblocking was done with piperidine and the peptide was removed from the resin by treatment with ethanolamine, this synthetic protocol prevented oxidation of the indole rings of this tryptophan-rich peptide and reduced truncations produced by acid hydrolysis [6].
  • The subjects slept at the laboratory for 2 separate nights so that morning performance could be evaluated after an evening diet containing either tryptophan-rich alpha-lactalbumin or tryptophan-low placebo protein [7].
  • These results demonstrate the crucial role of a tryptophan-rich motif in gp41 during a post-CD4-binding step of glycoprotein-mediated fusion [4].
  • All these proteins contain several tryptophan-rich repeats designated DWS motifs and internal repeat sequences [8].
  • The former encodes a 107-kDa protein containing tryptophan-rich repeats, which may serve to anchor the protein within the cell wall [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of WRB


Biological context of WRB

  • This paper presents an aquatic food web biomagnification model that simulates inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and MeHg accumulation in fish tissue and estimates WRB-specific biomagnification factors for resident fish species of concern to stakeholders [13].
  • Antimicrobial activity of arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptides: the effects of aromatic clusters, D-amino acid substitution and cyclization [14].
  • A multiple alignment of the tryptophan-rich regions of the CcsA-, CcmC- and CcmF-like sequences in the genome databases indicates that they represent three different families [15].
  • These antibodies are directed against a tryptophan-rich conserved sequence inside the major parasite surface glycoprotein [16].
  • A tryptophan-rich motif, which has been proposed to represent a heme binding site in bacterial cytochrome biogenesis proteins (CcmC and CcmF), is functionally important in plastid CcsA [15].

Anatomical context of WRB


Associations of WRB with chemical compounds

  • In the Willamette River Basin (WRB, Oregon, USA), health advisories currently limit consumption of fish that have accumulated methylmercury (MeHg) to levels posing a potential health risk for humans [13].
  • The distance between these two species was found to be less than 20 A. These results have been interpreted to indicate that propranolol, when bound to the beta-adrenergic receptor, is situated such that its naphthyl moiety is inserted into a tryptophan-rich hydrophobic pocket of the receptor [22].
  • (i) At the higher temperature, insertion of tryptophan-rich peptides increased the partitioning to the Pluronic phase [23].
  • Antimicrobial activity of short arginine- and tryptophan-rich peptides [24].
  • A method is presented by which prealbumin (thyroxine-binding prealbumin; tryptophan-rich prealbumin) may be purified to homogeneity from human serum [25].

Other interactions of WRB

  • Present experiments were performed on unusually tryptophan-rich protein, bacterial penicillin acylase (28 Trp per dimer of 82 kDa) and were aimed to extend these observations [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of WRB


  1. High resolution physical mapping and identification of transcribed sequences in the Down syndrome region-2. Vidal-Taboada, J.M., Bergoñón, S., Sánchez, M., López-Acedo, C., Groet, J., Nizetic, D., Egeo, A., Scartezzini, P., Katsanis, N., Fisher, E.M., Delabar, J.M., Oliva, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The active sites of the influenza cap-dependent endonuclease are on different polymerase subunits. Li, M.L., Rao, P., Krug, R.M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Interface peptides as structure-based human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Divita, G., Baillon, J.G., Rittinger, K., Chermann, J.C., Goody, R.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. A conserved tryptophan-rich motif in the membrane-proximal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 ectodomain is important for Env-mediated fusion and virus infectivity. Salzwedel, K., West, J.T., Hunter, E. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Peptides inhibitory for the transcriptional regulatory function of human papillomavirus E2. Fujii, T., Austin, D., Guo, D., Srimatkandada, S., Wang, T., Kubushiro, K., Masumoto, N., Tsukazaki, K., Nozawa, S., Deisseroth, A.B. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Solid-phase peptide synthesis and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of [Ala3-15N][Val1]gramicidin A. Fields, G.B., Fields, C.G., Petefish, J., Van Wart, H.E., Cross, T.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Evening intake of alpha-lactalbumin increases plasma tryptophan availability and improves morning alertness and brain measures of attention. Markus, C.R., Jonkman, L.M., Lammers, J.H., Deutz, N.E., Messer, M.H., Rigtering, N. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Genomic location and variation of the gene for CRS, a complement binding protein in the M57 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Binks, M., McMillan, D., Sriprakash, K.S. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic loci of Streptococcus mitis that mediate binding to human platelets. Bensing, B.A., Rubens, C.E., Sullam, P.M. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The membrane-proximal tryptophan-rich region of the HIV glycoprotein, gp41, forms a well-defined helix in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Schibli, D.J., Montelaro, R.C., Vogel, H.J. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Antibacterial action of structurally diverse cationic peptides on gram-positive bacteria. Friedrich, C.L., Moyles, D., Beveridge, T.J., Hancock, R.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Phthalate esters enhance quinolinate production by inhibiting alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), a key enzyme of the tryptophan pathway. Fukuwatari, T., Ohsaki, S., Fukuoka, S., Sasaki, R., Shibata, K. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. A basin-specific aquatic food web biomagnification model for estimation of mercury target levels. Hope, B. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Antimicrobial activity of arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptides: the effects of aromatic clusters, D-amino acid substitution and cyclization. Wessolowski, A., Bienert, M., Dathe, M. J. Pept. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A novel pathway for cytochromes c biogenesis in chloroplasts. Xie, Z., Merchant, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Importance of L-tryptophan metabolism in trypanosomiasis. Vincendeau, P., Lesthelle, S., Bertazzo, A., Okomo-Assoumou, M.C., Allegri, G., Costa, C.V. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of a new human cDNA from chromosome 21q22.3 encoding a basic nuclear protein. Egeo, A., Mazzocco, M., Sotgia, F., Arrigo, P., Oliva, R., Bergonòn, S., Nizetic, D., Rasore-Quartino, A., Scartezzini, P. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Interferon induction of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase safeguards the synthesis of tryptophan-rich immune-system proteins: a hypothesis. Xue, H., Wong, J.T. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Fungicidal effect of indolicidin and its interaction with phospholipid membranes. Lee, D.G., Kim, H.K., Kim, S.A., Park, Y., Park, S.C., Jang, S.H., Hahm, K.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Ovicide-induced serosa degeneration and its impact on embryonic development in Manduca sexta (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Berger-Twelbeck, P., Hofmeister, P., Emmling, S., Dorn, A. Tissue & cell. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Morbidity in Alagille syndrome in 6 Malaysian children. Lim, C.B., Choy, Y.S. Med. J. Malaysia (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Fluorescence studies of the beta-adrenergic receptor topology. Cherksey, B.D., Murphy, R.B., Zadunaisky, J.A. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Aqueous two-phase systems containing self-associating block copolymers. Partitioning of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biomolecules. Svensson, M., Berggren, K., Veide, A., Tjerneld, F. Journal of chromatography. A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Antimicrobial activity of short arginine- and tryptophan-rich peptides. Strøm, M.B., Rekdal, O., Svendsen, J.S. J. Pept. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Purification of prealbumin from human serum. Bashor, M.M., Hewett, J., Lackey, A., Driskell, W.J., Neese, J.W. Prep. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. On the excited-state energy transfer between tryptophan residues in proteins: the case of penicillin acylase. Ercelen, S., Kazan, D., Erarslan, A., Demchenko, A.P. Biophys. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Brain synaptosomal antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hanly, J.G., Hong, C., White, T.D. Lupus (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action: studies of indolicidin assembly at model membrane interfaces by in situ atomic force microscopy. Shaw, J.E., Alattia, J.R., Verity, J.E., Privé, G.G., Yip, C.M. J. Struct. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Solvent-dependent structure of two tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptides and their analogs studied by FTIR and CD spectroscopy. Andrushchenko, V.V., Vogel, H.J., Prenner, E.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
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