The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

MGCT  -  male germ cell tumor

Homo sapiens

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of MGCT


High impact information on MGCT

  • We identified six male patients with this syndrome treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: in all six, the leukemia was studied immunohistochemically for various hematologic and germ cell antigens; in four, the karyotype of the leukemia was available; in one, the MGCT had also been karyotyped [6].
  • A 16-year-old male with probable Klinefelter's syndrome presented simultaneously with acute monocytic leukemia and an MGCT; although the MGCT was not karyotyped, the leukemia showed an i(12p) [6].
  • A 19-year-old male developed an acute myeloblastic leukemia 11 months after presenting with an MGCT; karyotypes of the two tumors showed them to be clonally related, both showing an i(12p), a cytogenetic marker of germ cell tumors [6].
  • Evidence for a germ cell origin of the acute leukemias in the three other patients was not obtained, although in all three the MGCT and the leukemia occurred simultaneously, supporting an etiologic relationship [6].
  • A 23-year-old male developed concurrently an MGCT and acute myelomonocytic leukemia; the leukemia cells coexpressed myelomonocytic antigens (HAM56, My4, My9) and cytokeratin, suggesting dual differentiation, myeloid and germ cell [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of MGCT


Biological context of MGCT

  • Isochromosome 12p is a specific aberration frequently observed in MGCT [3].
  • Although these findings need confirmation from future studies, they suggest a potential influence of in utero exposure to maternal endogenous hormones, parental environmental exposures, and maternal diseases during pregnancy in the development of childhood MGCT [8].
  • New findings, not reported previously, include a positive relationship of MGCT risk with birthweight and prolonged breastfeeding, an inverse association between MGCT risk and number of cigarettes smoked by the mother during pregnancy, and a 3.1-fold increased risk (CI = 1.5-6.6) associated with maternal urinary infections during index pregnancy [8].
  • Consistent with the findings from studies of adult MGCT, gestational age was associated inversely with risk of MGCT, with a 70 to 75 percent reduction in risk for children born at term compared with those born pre-term [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant MGCT is a complex tumor of varied histology with frequent coexistence of benign elements [9].

Anatomical context of MGCT

  • The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) malignant germ cell tumour (MGCT) studies were undertaken to establish standard protocols of investigation, staging, and treatment [2].
  • Morphologically identifiable hematologic cells were found within the yolk sac tumor component of the MGCT in four of these patients [1].
  • It has been suggested that these leukemic conditions originate from a MGCT progenitor cell capable of undergoing non-germ cell (hematopoietic) differentiation [1].
  • The leukemic cells within the MGCT and in the bone marrow had similar morphology, constant expression of the early progenitor cell marker CD34, and variable expression of more mature myeloid, monocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic markers [1].
  • We identified 14 male germ cell tumor patients (13 of whom had received prior chemotherapy) in whom distinctive neoplasms composed of spindle to stellate cells set in a myxoid to collagenous stroma containing numerous blood vessels developed [10].

Associations of MGCT with chemical compounds


Other interactions of MGCT

  • In our experience CA-125 is an invaluable indicator of the clinical status of the patient and could be a new tumor marker in patients with MGCT [14].
  • CONCLUSION: Combination chemotherapy with HDPEB significantly improves EFS for children with high-risk MGCT [15].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present results show positive staining for inhibin/activin subunits in ovarian and testicular MGCT, suggesting a possible role in tumorigenesis with the resultant clinical implication [16].
  • The mean tubular diameter (MTD), tubular fertility index (TFI) and mean number of germ cells per tubule (MGCT) were calculated using immunohistochemistry for CD-99, a Sertoli-cell marker, to classify germ cells more accurately [17].
  • Human male germ cell tumor resistance to cisplatin is linked to TP53 gene mutation [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MGCT


  1. Hematopoietic precursor cells within the yolk sac tumor component are the source of secondary hematopoietic malignancies in patients with mediastinal germ cell tumors. Orazi, A., Neiman, R.S., Ulbright, T.M., Heerema, N.A., John, K., Nichols, C.R. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The UK Children's Cancer Study Group: testicular malignant germ cell tumours 1979-1988. Huddart, S.N., Mann, J.R., Gornall, P., Pearson, D., Barrett, A., Raafat, F., Barnes, J.M., Wallendsus, K.R. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Myelodysplastic syndrome (RARS) with +i(12p) abnormality in a patient 10 months after diagnosis and successful treatment of a mediastinal germ cell tumor (MGCT). Christodoulou, J., Schoch, C., Schnittger, S., Haferlach, T. Ann. Hematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. A rare germ-cell tumor site: vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Arora, M., Shrivastav, R.K., Jaiprakash, M.P. Pediatr. Surg. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Mediastinal mature teratoma with coexistence of angiosarcoma, granulocytic sarcoma and a hematopoietic region in the tumor: a rare case of association between hematological malignancy and mediastinal germ cell tumor. Saito, A., Watanabe, K., Kusakabe, T., Abe, M., Suzuki, T. Pathol. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Cytogenetic and immunohistochemical evidence for the germ cell origin of a subset of acute leukemias associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors. Ladanyi, M., Samaniego, F., Reuter, V.E., Motzer, R.J., Jhanwar, S.C., Bosl, G.J., Chaganti, R.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of children and adolescents with stage II testicular and stages I and II ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: A Pediatric Intergroup Study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9048 and Children's Cancer Group 8891. Rogers, P.C., Olson, T.A., Cullen, J.W., Billmire, D.F., Marina, N., Rescorla, F., Davis, M.M., London, W.B., Lauer, S.J., Giller, R.H., Cushing, B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. An exploratory analysis of risk factors for childhood malignant germ-cell tumors: report from the Childrens Cancer Group (Canada, United States). Shu, X.O., Nesbit, M.E., Buckley, J.D., Krailo, M.D., Robinson, L.L. Cancer Causes Control (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. Billmire, D., Vinocur, C., Rescorla, F., Colombani, P., Cushing, B., Hawkins, E., London, W.B., Giller, R., Lauer, S. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Spindle cell tumors resected from male patients with germ cell tumors. A clinicopathologic study of 14 cases. Ulbright, T.M., Michael, H., Loehrer, P.J., Donohue, J.P. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Ovarian and extragonadal malignant germ-cell tumors in females: a single-institution experience with 43 patients. Mayordomo, J.I., Paz-Ares, L., Rivera, F., López-Brea, M., López Martín, E., Mendiola, C., Díaz-Puente, M.T., Lianes, P., García-Prats, M.D., Cortés-Funes, H. Ann. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin/bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin chemotherapy: an alternating, dose intense regimen producing promising results in untreated patients with intermediate or poor prognosis malignant germ-cell tumours. Anthoney, D.A., McKean, M.J., Roberts, J.T., Hutcheon, A.W., Graham, J., Jones, W., Paul, J., Kaye, S.B. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Ifosfamide in refractory male germ cell tumors. Wheeler, B.M., Loehrer, P.J., Williams, S.D., Einhorn, L.H. J. Clin. Oncol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. The value of cancer antigen-125 as a tumor marker in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Altaras, M.M., Goldberg, G.L., Levin, W., Darge, L., Bloch, B., Smith, J.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Randomized comparison of combination chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, and either high-dose or standard-dose cisplatin in children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9049 and Children's Cancer Group 8882. Cushing, B., Giller, R., Cullen, J.W., Marina, N.M., Lauer, S.J., Olson, T.A., Rogers, P.C., Colombani, P., Rescorla, F., Billmire, D.F., Vinocur, C.D., Hawkins, E.P., Davis, M.M., Perlman, E.J., London, W.B., Castleberry, R.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Gonadal malignant germ cell tumors express immunoreactive inhibin/activin subunits. Cobellis, L., Cataldi, P., Reis, F.M., De Palo, G., Raspagliesi, F., Pilotti, S., Arcuri, F., Petraglia, F. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A comparison of palpable and impalpable cryptorchid testes using CD-99 immunohistochemistry. Abrahams, H.M., Kallakury, B.V., Sheehan, C.E., Kogan, B.A. BJU international. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Human male germ cell tumor resistance to cisplatin is linked to TP53 gene mutation. Houldsworth, J., Xiao, H., Murty, V.V., Chen, W., Ray, B., Reuter, V.E., Bosl, G.J., Chaganti, R.S. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Growing teratoma syndrome after chemotherapy for a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary. Itani, Y., Kawa, M., Toyoda, S., Yamagami, K., Hiraoka, K. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased mortality rates in young and middle-aged patients with malignant germ cell tumours. Fosså, S.D., Aass, N., Harvei, S., Tretli, S. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Mixed osteoclastic/pleomorphic giant cell tumor of the pancreas: a case report. Ezenekwe, A.M., Collins, B.T., Ponder, T.B. Acta Cytol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Malignant giant cell tumor associated with leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Sieiński, W. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities