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Gene Review

MUC16  -  mucin 16, cell surface associated

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CA-125, CA125, FLJ14303, MUC-16, Mucin-16, ...
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Disease relevance of MUC16

  • Solution structure of the SEA domain from the murine homologue of ovarian cancer antigen CA125 (MUC16) [1].
  • Mesothelin-MUC16 binding is a high affinity, N-glycan dependent interaction that facilitates peritoneal metastasis of ovarian tumors [2].
  • The binding between the MUC16 expressing ovarian tumor cells and the A431-Meso+ cells occurs even in the presence of ascites from patients with ovarian cancer [2].
  • In Sjogren syndrome, MUC5AC expression is reduced, and in non-Sjogren dry eye, glycosylation of MUC16 appears to be altered [3].
  • A rabbit polyclonal antibody produced to purified CA125 antigen was used to screen a lambdaZAP cDNA library from OVCAR-3 cells in Escherichia coli [4].
  • These promising preclinical studies justify further investigation of MUC-CD-targeted T cells as a potential therapeutic approach for patients with high-risk MUC16(+) ovarian carcinomas [5].

Psychiatry related information on MUC16

  • Of those who knew their mutation result, 11% underwent bilateral mastectomy (BM), 29% had bilateral oophorectomy (BO), 78% performed regular breast self-examination (BSE), and 80%, 89%, 67%, and 0% had at least annual clinical breast examination (CBE), mammography, transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), and CA125, respectively [6].

High impact information on MUC16


Chemical compound and disease context of MUC16


Biological context of MUC16

  • Binding of ovarian cancer antigen CA125/MUC16 to mesothelin mediates cell adhesion [15].
  • RESULTS: In this study we utilize recombinant-Fc tagged human mesothelin to measure the binding kinetics of this glycoprotein to MUC16 expressed on the ovarian tumor cell line OVCAR-3 [2].
  • CA125 may therefore induce specific immunomodulatory effects by employing its carbohydrate sequences as functional groups, thereby promoting tumor progression [11].
  • CA 125 was associated with advanced stage, lung, pleural or gastrointestinal tract involvement and CA 15.3 was correlated with advanced stage, bone involvement, aggressive histology and bulky disease [16].
  • It has been 20 years since CA 125 was first recognized and it is only in recent years (the past 2) that some progress has been made toward cloning the gene, providing the basis for an understanding of the functional role of this molecule in embryonic development and neoplastic transformation [17].

Anatomical context of MUC16


Associations of MUC16 with chemical compounds

  • Since eicosanoids, the product of arachidonic acid generated by the PLA(2) family, have been shown to increase mucin production, this study sought to determine whether sPLA(2) mediates the RA induction of MUC16 [21].
  • CA125 is also N-glycosylated, expressing primarily high mannose and complex bisecting type N-linked glycans [11].
  • There were no significant correlations between the FF AFP, CEA, and CA 125 levels and gonadotropin and gonadal steroid hormone levels [22].
  • The molecule also includes an amino terminal domain of serine/threonine-rich sequences which would account for most of the O-glycosylation known to be present in CA 125 [23].
  • Menstrual cycle dependent variability for serum tumor markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in healthy women [24].

Regulatory relationships of MUC16


Other interactions of MUC16

  • Human ovarian carcinomas express the CA-125, HER2/neu, and MUC1 tumor-associated Ags as potential targets for the induction of active specific immunotherapy [29].
  • The prognostic value of p53 and c-erbB-2 immunostaining and preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA125 was investigated in a prospective multicentric study including 465 consecutive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with resectable tumors [30].
  • Real-time PCR revealed that MUC4 mRNA was significantly induced by serum 3 hours after its addition, and that MUC1 and MUC16 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated at 72 hours [31].
  • Distinct evolution of the human carcinoma-associated transmembrane mucins, MUC1, MUC4 AND MUC16 [32].
  • PP 14 and CA-125 in uterine flushings were measured and expressed per total protein content [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MUC16


  1. Solution structure of the SEA domain from the murine homologue of ovarian cancer antigen CA125 (MUC16). Maeda, T., Inoue, M., Koshiba, S., Yabuki, T., Aoki, M., Nunokawa, E., Seki, E., Matsuda, T., Motoda, Y., Kobayashi, A., Hiroyasu, F., Shirouzu, M., Terada, T., Hayami, N., Ishizuka, Y., Shinya, N., Tatsuguchi, A., Yoshida, M., Hirota, H., Matsuo, Y., Tani, K., Arakawa, T., Carninci, P., Kawai, J., Hayashizaki, Y., Kigawa, T., Yokoyama, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Mesothelin-MUC16 binding is a high affinity, N-glycan dependent interaction that facilitates peritoneal metastasis of ovarian tumors. Gubbels, J.A., Belisle, J., Onda, M., Rancourt, C., Migneault, M., Ho, M., Bera, T.K., Connor, J., Sathyanarayana, B.K., Lee, B., Pastan, I., Patankar, M.S. Mol. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Character of ocular surface mucins and their alteration in dry eye disease. Gipson, I.K., Hori, Y., Argüeso, P. The ocular surface (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning of the CA125 ovarian cancer antigen: identification as a new mucin, MUC16. Yin, B.W., Lloyd, K.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Successful eradication of established peritoneal ovarian tumors in SCID-Beige mice following adoptive transfer of T cells genetically targeted to the MUC16 antigen. Chekmasova, A.A., Rao, T.D., Nikhamin, Y., Park, K.J., Levine, D.A., Spriggs, D.R., Brentjens, R.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2010) [Pubmed]
  6. Risk-reducing surgery, screening and chemoprevention practices of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a prospective cohort study. Phillips, K.A., Jenkins, M.A., Lindeman, G.J., McLachlan, S.A., McKinley, J.M., Weideman, P.C., Hopper, J.L., Friedlander, M.L. Clin. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study. Brugge, W.R., Lewandrowski, K., Lee-Lewandrowski, E., Centeno, B.A., Szydlo, T., Regan, S., del Castillo, C.F., Warshaw, A.L. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Application of Bayesian modeling of autologous antibody responses against ovarian tumor-associated antigens to cancer detection. Erkanli, A., Taylor, D.D., Dean, D., Eksir, F., Egger, D., Geyer, J., Nelson, B.H., Stone, B., Fritsche, H.A., Roden, R.B. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A genetically defined model for human ovarian cancer. Liu, J., Yang, G., Thompson-Lanza, J.A., Glassman, A., Hayes, K., Patterson, A., Marquez, R.T., Auersperg, N., Yu, Y., Hahn, W.C., Mills, G.B., Bast, R.C. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Discovery and validation of new molecular targets for ovarian cancer. Hu, X.F., Xing, P.X. Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125. Kui Wong, N., Easton, R.L., Panico, M., Sutton-Smith, M., Morrison, J.C., Lattanzio, F.A., Morris, H.R., Clark, G.F., Dell, A., Patankar, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix has abnormal expression of sex steroid receptors, CA125, and gastric mucin. Toki, T., Shiozawa, T., Hosaka, N., Ishii, K., Nikaido, T., Fujii, S. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. CA125 expression in epithelioid sarcoma. Kato, H., Hatori, M., Kokubun, S., Watanabe, M., Smith, R.A., Hotta, T., Ogose, A., Morita, T., Murakami, T., Aiba, S. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The prognostic value of CEA, beta HCG, AFP, CA125, CA19-9 and C-erb B-2, beta HCG immunohistochemistry in advanced colorectal cancer. Webb, A., Scott-Mackie, P., Cunningham, D., Norman, A., Andreyev, J., O'Brien, M., Bensted, J. Ann. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Binding of ovarian cancer antigen CA125/MUC16 to mesothelin mediates cell adhesion. Rump, A., Morikawa, Y., Tanaka, M., Minami, S., Umesaki, N., Takeuchi, M., Miyajima, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Usefulness of tumor markers CA 125 and CA 15.3 at diagnosis and during follow-up in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: study of 200 patients. Batlle, M., Ribera, J.M., Oriol, A., Pastor, C., Mate, J.L., Fernández-Avilés, F., Flores, A., Millá, F., Feliu, E. Leuk. Lymphoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The CA 125 gene: a newly discovered extension of the glycosylated N-terminal domain doubles the size of this extracellular superstructure. O'Brien, T.J., Beard, J.B., Underwood, L.J., Shigemasa, K. Tumour Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Impact of short-term exposure of commercial eyedrops preserved with benzalkonium chloride on precorneal mucin. Chung, S.H., Lee, S.K., Cristol, S.M., Lee, E.S., Lee, D.W., Seo, K.Y., Kim, E.K. Mol. Vis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. A comparison of pseudocysts, serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Lewandrowski, K.B., Southern, J.F., Pins, M.R., Compton, C.C., Warshaw, A.L. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the vulva mimicking epithelioid sarcoma. Kudo, E., Hirose, T., Fujii, Y., Hasegawa, T., Ino, H., Hizawa, K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of retinoic acid on gene expression in human conjunctival epithelium: secretory phospholipase A2 mediates retinoic acid induction of MUC16. Hori, Y., Spurr-Michaud, S.J., Russo, C.L., Argüeso, P., Gipson, I.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Follicular fluid alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA-125 levels in relation to in vitro fertilization and gonadotropin and steroid hormone concentrations. Jimena, P., Castilla, J.A., Ramirez, J.P., Gil, T., Acebal, M., Molina, R., Herruzo, A.J. Fertil. Steril. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. The CA 125 gene: an extracellular superstructure dominated by repeat sequences. O'Brien, T.J., Beard, J.B., Underwood, L.J., Dennis, R.A., Santin, A.D., York, L. Tumour Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Menstrual cycle dependent variability for serum tumor markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in healthy women. Erbağci, A.B., Yilmaz, N., Kutlar, I. Dis. Markers (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of glycoprotein expression between ovarian and colon adenocarcinomas. Multhaupt, H.A., Arenas-Elliott, C.P., Warhol, M.J. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Oxidative damage to DNA of ovarian surface epithelial cells affected by ovulation: carcinogenic implication and chemoprevention. Murdoch, W.J., Martinchick, J.F. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of irradiation on the expression of surface antigens in human ovarian cancer. Santin, A.D., Hiserodt, J.C., Fruehauf, J., DiSaia, P.J., Pecorelli, S., Granger, G.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. A binding domain on mesothelin for CA125/MUC16. Kaneko, O., Gong, L., Zhang, J., Hansen, J.K., Hassan, R., Lee, B., Ho, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  29. Fusions of human ovarian carcinoma cells with autologous or allogeneic dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity. Gong, J., Nikrui, N., Chen, D., Koido, S., Wu, Z., Tanaka, Y., Cannistra, S., Avigan, D., Kufe, D. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Clinical value of p53, c-erbB-2, CEA and CA125 regarding relapse, metastasis and death in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Pollán, M., Varela, G., Torres, A., de la Torre, M., Ludeña, M.D., Ortega, M.D., Pac, J., Freixenet, J., Gómez, G., Sebastián, F., Díez, M., Arrabal, R., Canalís, E., García-Tirado, J., Arnedillo, A., Rivas, J.J., Minguella, J., Gómez, A., García, M., Aragonés, N., Pérez-Gómez, B., López-Abente, G., González-Sarmiento, R., Rojas, J.M. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential regulation of membrane-associated mucins in the human ocular surface epithelium. Hori, Y., Spurr-Michaud, S., Russo, C.L., Argüeso, P., Gipson, I.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Distinct evolution of the human carcinoma-associated transmembrane mucins, MUC1, MUC4 AND MUC16. Duraisamy, S., Ramasamy, S., Kharbanda, S., Kufe, D. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Concentrations of endometrial protein PP 14 and CA-125 in uterine flushings performed in natural and stimulated cycles. Ng, E.H., Laird, S.M., Li, T.C., Yeung, W.S., Ho, P.C. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. New tumor markers: CA125 and beyond. Bast, R.C., Badgwell, D., Lu, Z., Marquez, R., Rosen, D., Liu, J., Baggerly, K.A., Atkinson, E.N., Skates, S., Zhang, Z., Lokshin, A., Menon, U., Jacobs, I., Lu, K. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Isolation and characterization of ovarian cancer antigen CA 125 using a new monoclonal antibody (VK-8): identification as a mucin-type molecule. Lloyd, K.O., Yin, B.W., Kudryashov, V. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary. Tornos, C., Soslow, R., Chen, S., Akram, M., Hummer, A.J., Abu-Rustum, N., Norton, L., Tan, L.K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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