The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Cish  -  cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CIS, CIS-1, Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, SOCS, Suppressor of cytokine signaling
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cish

  • Intravenous injection of 20 microgram/kg body weight of CT-1 induced a transient, marked increase in STAT3 activation in various tissues, including heart and lung, and subsequent upregulation of 2 members of the CIS family, JAK-binding protein (JAB)/SOCS-1/SSI-1 and CIS3/SOCS-3/SSI-3, in the same tissues [1].
  • The percentage of proliferating cells, as evaluated by 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling (BrdU-LI), was similar in TEBs to those in terminal endbud hyperplasia (TEBH), CIS, and carcinomas (CA), whereas the percentage of apoptotic cells (apoptotic index, AI) was relatively high in TEBs and decreased in TEBH, CIS, and CA [2].
  • Since TEBs are considered the place of origin of most chemically induced mammary carcinomas, we hypothesized that the development of hyperplastic and premalignant (carcinoma in situ, CIS) lesions in TEBs is associated with either a further increase in cell proliferation and/or with a decrease in ACD [2].
  • Based on changes in lung weight, BALF indices, and histopathology, CT was the most toxic for the lung; CIS had intermediate toxicity and CGS was the least toxic [3].

High impact information on Cish


Chemical compound and disease context of Cish

  • Acute toxicity studies were conducted on copper gallium diselenide (CGS), copper indium diselenide (CIS), and cadmium telluride (CT), three novel compounds used in the photovoltaic and semiconductor industries [3].

Biological context of Cish

  • Since interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced GAS-luciferase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 were lower in CIS-transfected cells compared to control vector-transfected cells, CIS could have anti-inflammatory activity [8].
  • All three compounds caused marked increases in total BALF cell numbers, with the greatest increase observed in CIS-treated rats [9].

Anatomical context of Cish


Associations of Cish with chemical compounds

  • The internalization of GH and GHR was inhibited by CIS-R107K, a dominant-negative SH2 domain mutant of CIS, and by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin, which prolong GHR signaling to STAT5b [4].
  • 1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits GH-induced expression of SOCS-3 and CIS and prolongs growth hormone signaling via the Janus kinase (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT5) system in osteoblast-like cells [5].
  • These data suggest that thrombin-stimulation of ROS and prostaglandin and leukotriene production via the cPLA(2), COX and LO pathways results in CIS expression [8].
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC] and trolox) reduced thrombin-induced CIS expression, and inhibitors of COX and LO reduced ROS produced by thrombin [8].
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of oleic (CIS), palmitic (SAT) and trans fatty acids (TRANS) on cholesterol metabolism [12].

Other interactions of Cish


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cish

  • Total numbers of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly increased in treated rats and were greatest in the 100 mg/kg CIS group [3].
  • At 72 hr after treatment, body weight gain was significantly decreased in the 100 mg/kg CIS group and in all CT dose groups [3].


  1. Induction of JAB/SOCS-1/SSI-1 and CIS3/SOCS-3/SSI-3 is involved in gp130 resistance in cardiovascular system in rat treated with cardiotrophin-1 in vivo. Hamanaka, I., Saito, Y., Yasukawa, H., Kishimoto, I., Kuwahara, K., Miyamoto, Y., Harada, M., Ogawa, E., Kajiyama, N., Takahashi, N., Izumi, T., Kawakami, R., Masuda, I., Yoshimura, A., Nakao, K. Circ. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Neoplastic transformation of mammary epithelial cells in rats is associated with decreased apoptotic cell death. Shilkaitis, A., Green, A., Steele, V., Lubet, R., Kelloff, G., Christov, K. Carcinogenesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Acute pulmonary toxicity of copper gallium diselenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride intratracheally instilled into rats. Morgan, D.L., Shines, C.J., Jeter, S.P., Wilson, R.E., Elwell, M.P., Price, H.C., Moskowitz, P.D. Environmental research. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the cytokine-induced SH2 domain-containing protein CIS in growth hormone receptor internalization. Landsman, T., Waxman, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. 1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits GH-induced expression of SOCS-3 and CIS and prolongs growth hormone signaling via the Janus kinase (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT5) system in osteoblast-like cells. Morales, O., Faulds, M.H., Lindgren, U.J., Haldosén, L.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Suppression of Prolactin-Induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5b Signaling and Induction of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus of the Rat during Late Pregnancy and Lactation. Anderson, G.M., Beijer, P., Bang, A.S., Fenwick, M.A., Bunn, S.J., Grattan, D.R. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanisms underlying the diminished sensitivity to prolactin negative feedback during lactation: reduced STAT5 signaling and up-regulation of cytokine-inducible SH2 domain-containing protein (CIS) expression in tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons. Anderson, S.T., Barclay, J.L., Fanning, K.J., Kusters, D.H., Waters, M.J., Curlewis, J.D. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Thrombin induces expression of cytokine-induced SH2 protein (CIS) in rat brain astrocytes: involvement of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase. Ji, K.A., Yang, M.S., Jou, I., Shong, M.H., Joe, E.H. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative pulmonary absorption, distribution, and toxicity of copper gallium diselenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Morgan, D.L., Shines, C.J., Jeter, S.P., Blazka, M.E., Elwell, M.R., Wilson, R.E., Ward, S.M., Price, H.C., Moskowitz, P.D. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Tissue-specific induction of SOCS gene expression by PRL. Tam, S.P., Lau, P., Djiane, J., Hilton, D.J., Waters, M.J. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Close relationships between the cells of the immune system and the epithelial cells in the rat small intestine. Hashimoto, Y., Komuro, T. Cell Tissue Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Trans fatty acids affect lipoprotein metabolism in rats. Gatto, L.M., Lyons, M.A., Brown, A.J., Samman, S. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of burn injury on suppressors of cytokine signalling. Ogle, C.K., Kong, F., Guo, X., Wells, D.A., Aosasa, S., Noel, G., Horseman, N. Shock (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities