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Chemical Compound Review

Gallium-73     gallium

Synonyms: AC1O3U23, 73Ga, 15034-51-2, Gallium, isotope of mass 73
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Disease relevance of gallium


Psychiatry related information on gallium


High impact information on gallium


Chemical compound and disease context of gallium


Biological context of gallium

  • Finally, the way in which gallium salts are currently being investigated as chemotherapeutic agents should be reevaluated in light of our findings concerning transferrin-gallium effects on cellular proliferation [16].
  • Treatment with gallium nitrate (100 mg/m2 daily for 5 days, intravenously in 5% glucose) significantly reduced serum calcium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium, and the ratio of maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate to glomerular filtration rate in each patient [17].
  • Though bone is a target organ for gallium, the kinetics, sites, and effects of gallium accumulation in bone are not known [18].
  • After short-term in vivo administration of gallium nitrate to rats, trace (nanogram) amounts of gallium preferentially localized to the metabolically active regions in the metaphysis as well as the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of diaphyseal bone, regions where new bone formation and modeling were occurring [18].
  • Substitution and dimerization of the phthalocyanine monomer resulted in significant reductions in the saturation energy density of the material displaying clear evidence of the usefulness of structurally modifying the gallium phthalocyanine unit [19].

Anatomical context of gallium


Associations of gallium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of gallium

  • According to this view, a tumor-associated TF receptor is the functional unit responsible for the affinity of gallium for certain neoplasms [29].
  • After 59Fe-Tf uptake, R cells released greater amounts of 59Fe than gallium-sensitive (S) cells [30].
  • Transferrin receptor-dependent and -independent iron transport in gallium-resistant human lymphoid leukemic cells [30].
  • Neuroendocrine tumor targeting: study of novel gallium-labeled somatostatin radiopeptides in a rat pancreatic tumor model [31].
  • Because of similarities in the transport of gallium and iron and the use of (67)Ga scanning in lymphoid malignancies, we examined the effect of HFE expression on (67)Ga uptake [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gallium


  1. Metal compounds in therapy and diagnosis. Abrams, M.J., Murrer, B.A. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Gallium scans for staging small cell lung cancer. Brereton, H.D., Line, B.R., Londer, H.N., O'Donnell, J.F., Kent, C.H., Johnson, R.E. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Psoas abscess localization by gallium scan in aplastic anemia. Oster, M.W., Gelrud, L.G., Lotz, M.J., Herzig, G.P., Johnston, G.S. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia. Warrell, R.P., Bockman, R.S., Coonley, C.J., Isaacs, M., Staszewski, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Low-dose gallium nitrate for prevention of osteolysis in myeloma: results of a pilot randomized study. Warrell, R.P., Lovett, D., Dilmanian, F.A., Schneider, R., Heelan, R.T. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse. Swayne, L.C. Clinical nuclear medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides. Pan, Z.W., Dai, Z.R., Wang, Z.L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Endocytic delivery of lipocalin-siderophore-iron complex rescues the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mori, K., Lee, H.T., Rapoport, D., Drexler, I.R., Foster, K., Yang, J., Schmidt-Ott, K.M., Chen, X., Li, J.Y., Weiss, S., Mishra, J., Cheema, F.H., Markowitz, G., Suganami, T., Sawai, K., Mukoyama, M., Kunis, C., D'Agati, V., Devarajan, P., Barasch, J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with continuous-infusion gallium nitrate. Seligman, P.A., Crawford, E.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Combination iron depletion therapy. Taetle, R., Honeysett, J.M., Bergeron, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of different transferrin forms on transferrin receptor expression, iron uptake, and cellular proliferation of human leukemic HL60 cells. Mechanisms responsible for the specific cytotoxicity of transferrin-gallium. Chitambar, C.R., Seligman, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme and gallium scan in noninvasive evaluation of sarcoidosis. Nosal, A., Schleissner, L.A., Mishkin, F.S., Lieberman, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical features of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Dusman, R.E., Stanton, M.S., Miles, W.M., Klein, L.S., Zipes, D.P., Fineberg, N.S., Heger, J.J. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Gallium citrate Ga 67 imaging in noninfectious interstitial nephritis. Wood, B.C., Sharma, J.N., Germann, D.R., Wood, W.G., Crouch, T.T. Arch. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, gallium-67 scintigraphy, and conventional staging for Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Wirth, A., Seymour, J.F., Hicks, R.J., Ware, R., Fisher, R., Prince, M., MacManus, M.P., Ryan, G., Januszewicz, H., Wolf, M. Am. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression on human leukemic cells during proliferation and induction of differentiation. Effects of gallium and dimethylsulfoxide. Chitambar, C.R., Massey, E.J., Seligman, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Use of gallium to treat Paget's disease of bone: a pilot study. Matkovic, V., Apseloff, G., Shepard, D.R., Gerber, N. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution of trace levels of therapeutic gallium in bone as mapped by synchrotron x-ray microscopy. Bockman, R.S., Repo, M.A., Warrell, R.P., Pounds, J.G., Schidlovsky, G., Gordon, B.M., Jones, K.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting. Chen, Y., Hanack, M., Araki, Y., Ito, O. Chemical Society reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Distribution of anticancer agents in spontaneous animal tumors. II. Distribution of gallium in canine lymphosarcoma. Straw, J.A., Klubes, P., Hart, M.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Radiation pneumonitis: a possible lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Roberts, C.M., Foulcher, E., Zaunders, J.J., Bryant, D.H., Freund, J., Cairns, D., Penny, R., Morgan, G.W., Breit, S.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Tomographic gallium-67 citrate scanning: useful new surveillance for metastatic melanoma. Kirkwood, J.M., Myers, J.E., Vlock, D.R., Neumann, R., Ariyan, S., Gottschalk, A., Hoffer, P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Mishkin, F.S., Tanaka, T.T., Niden, A.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of agents that inhibit cellular iron incorporation on bladder cancer cell proliferation. Seligman, P.A., Schleicher, R.B., Siriwardana, G., Domenico, J., Gelfand, E.W. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulatory effects of gallium on transferrin-independent iron uptake by human leukemic HL60 cells. Chitambar, C.R., Sax, D. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Phase II trial of vinblastine, ifosfamide, and gallium combination chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Einhorn, L.H., Roth, B.J., Ansari, R., Dreicer, R., Gonin, R., Loehrer, P.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Interaction of gallium nitrate with fludarabine and iron chelators: effects on the proliferation of human leukemic HL60 cells. Lundberg, J.H., Chitambar, C.R. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential growth-inhibitory effects of gallium on B-lymphocyte lines in high versus low iron concentrations. Kovar, J., Seligman, P., Gelfand, E.W. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Common pathway for tumor cell uptake of gallium-67 and iron-59 via a transferrin receptor. Larson, S.M., Rasey, J.S., Allen, D.R., Nelson, N.J., Grunbaum, Z., Harp, G.D., Williams, D.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Transferrin receptor-dependent and -independent iron transport in gallium-resistant human lymphoid leukemic cells. Chitambar, C.R., Wereley, J.P. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Neuroendocrine tumor targeting: study of novel gallium-labeled somatostatin radiopeptides in a rat pancreatic tumor model. Froidevaux, S., Eberle, A.N., Christe, M., Sumanovski, L., Heppeler, A., Schmitt, J.S., Eisenwiener, K., Beglinger, C., Mäcke, H.R. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene modulates the cellular uptake of 67Ga. Chitambar, C.R., Wereley, J.P. J. Nucl. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Radiation-induced lung injury: a hypersensitivity pneumonitis? Gibson, P.G., Bryant, D.H., Morgan, G.W., Yeates, M., Fernandez, V., Penny, R., Breit, S.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions. Jett, J.R., Kuritsky, J.N., Katzmann, J.A., Homburger, H.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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