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Gene Review

PRC1  -  protein regulator of cytokinesis 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ASE1, Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1
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Disease relevance of PRC1

  • Site-specific expression of polycomb-group genes encoding the HPC-HPH/PRC1 complex in clinically defined primary nodal and cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas [1].
  • Among the upregulated genes, we focused on the functional significance of protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) in the development of breast cancer [2].
  • However, poorly differentiated DCIS and invasive carcinomas frequently expressed EZH2 in combination with HPC-HPH/PRC1 proteins [3].

High impact information on PRC1

  • We find that PcG protein complexes PhoRC, PRC1, and PRC2 and the Trx protein are all constitutively bound to Polycomb response elements (PREs) in the OFF and ON state [4].
  • We find that Polycomb-Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), PRC2, and tri-methylated histone H3K27 co-occupy >1000 silenced genes with a strong functional bias for embryonic development and cell fate decisions [5].
  • Ring1B and Bmi1 are RING finger proteins that are members of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) [6].
  • Here, we demonstrate that the chromodomain-containing protein, CBX8, which is part of one of the PRC1 complexes, regulates proliferation of diploid human and mouse fibroblasts through direct binding to the INK4A-ARF locus [7].
  • We find that KIF14 targets to the central spindle via its interaction with PRC1 and has an essential function in cytokinesis [8].

Biological context of PRC1

  • PRC1 contains two Cdk phosphorylation motifs, and phosphorylation is possibly important to mitotic suppression of bundling, as a Cdk phosphorylation-null mutant causes extensive bundling of the prometaphase spindle [9].
  • We demonstrate that PRC1, a mitotic spindle-associated Cdk substrate that is essential to cell cleavage, is a microtubule binding and bundling protein both in vivo and in vitro [9].
  • Overexpression of PRC1 extensively bundles interphase microtubules, but does not affect early mitotic spindle organization [9].
  • Truncation mutants demonstrate that the NH2-terminal region of PRC1, rich in alpha-helical sequence, is important for localization to the cleavage furrow and to the center of the midbody, whereas the central region, with the highest sequence homology between species, is required for microtubule binding and bundling activity [9].
  • Polycomb group proteins Ring1b and Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1) are critical components of the chromatin modulating PRC1 complex [10].

Anatomical context of PRC1

  • In KIF4-deficient cells, the central spindle was disorganized, and all midzone-associated proteins including PRC1 failed to concentrate at the midline, instead being dispersed along the loosened microtubule bundles of the central spindle [11].
  • These data provide a foundation for understanding the critical enzymatic activity at the core of the PRC1 polycomb complex, which is implicated in stem cell maintenance and cancer [10].
  • We have examined the role of PRC1, a midzone-associated, microtubule bundling, Cdk substrate protein, in regulating the spatiotemporal formation of the midzone in HeLa cells [12].
  • Western blot analysis using breast cancer cell lines revealed a significant increase in endogenous PRC1 levels in G(2)/M phase [2].
  • Therefore, for the first time, we are able to indicate a functional involvement of Prc1 during the meiotic prophase of male germ cells and a regulatory role of Scmh1 for Prc1, which involves sex chromosomes [13].

Associations of PRC1 with chemical compounds

  • In addition, E2-induced expression of PCNA, PRC1, and bcl-2 were inhibited by mitochondrial blockers [14].

Physical interactions of PRC1


Regulatory relationships of PRC1

  • By isolation and characterization of a 3 kb genomic fragment containing the 5'-flanking region and part of exon 1 of PRC1 gene, we demonstrate that p53 directly suppresses PRC1 gene transcription [16].

Other interactions of PRC1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRC1


  1. Site-specific expression of polycomb-group genes encoding the HPC-HPH/PRC1 complex in clinically defined primary nodal and cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas. Raaphorst, F.M., Vermeer, M., Fieret, E., Blokzijl, T., Dukers, D., Sewalt, R.G., Otte, A.P., Willemze, R., Meijer, C.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Elevated expression of protein regulator of cytokinesis 1, involved in the growth of breast cancer cells. Shimo, A., Nishidate, T., Ohta, T., Fukuda, M., Nakamura, Y., Katagiri, T. Cancer Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Poorly differentiated breast carcinoma is associated with increased expression of the human polycomb group EZH2 gene. Raaphorst, F.M., Meijer, C.J., Fieret, E., Blokzijl, T., Mommers, E., Buerger, H., Packeisen, J., Sewalt, R.A., Otte, A.P., van Diest, P.J. Neoplasia (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Histone trimethylation and the maintenance of transcriptional ON and OFF states by trxG and PcG proteins. Papp, B., Müller, J. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genome-wide mapping of Polycomb target genes unravels their roles in cell fate transitions. Bracken, A.P., Dietrich, N., Pasini, D., Hansen, K.H., Helin, K. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The Polycomb Protein Ring1B Generates Self Atypical Mixed Ubiquitin Chains Required for Its In Vitro Histone H2A Ligase Activity. Ben-Saadon, R., Zaaroor, D., Ziv, T., Ciechanover, A. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Bypass of senescence by the polycomb group protein CBX8 through direct binding to the INK4A-ARF locus. Dietrich, N., Bracken, A.P., Trinh, E., Schjerling, C.K., Koseki, H., Rappsilber, J., Helin, K., Hansen, K.H. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. KIF14 and citron kinase act together to promote efficient cytokinesis. Gruneberg, U., Neef, R., Li, X., Chan, E.H., Chalamalasetty, R.B., Nigg, E.A., Barr, F.A. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. PRC1 is a microtubule binding and bundling protein essential to maintain the mitotic spindle midzone. Mollinari, C., Kleman, J.P., Jiang, W., Schoehn, G., Hunter, T., Margolis, R.L. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure and E3-ligase activity of the Ring-Ring complex of polycomb proteins Bmi1 and Ring1b. Buchwald, G., van der Stoop, P., Weichenrieder, O., Perrakis, A., van Lohuizen, M., Sixma, T.K. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Essential roles of KIF4 and its binding partner PRC1 in organized central spindle midzone formation. Kurasawa, Y., Earnshaw, W.C., Mochizuki, Y., Dohmae, N., Todokoro, K. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Spatiotemporal control of spindle midzone formation by PRC1 in human cells. Zhu, C., Lau, E., Schwarzenbacher, R., Bossy-Wetzel, E., Jiang, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Mammalian Polycomb Scmh1 mediates exclusion of Polycomb complexes from the XY body in the pachytene spermatocytes. Takada, Y., Isono, K., Shinga, J., Turner, J.M., Kitamura, H., Ohara, O., Watanabe, G., Singh, P.B., Kamijo, T., Jenuwein, T., Burgoyne, P.S., Koseki, H. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Estrogen-induced G1/S transition of G0-arrested estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells is regulated by mitochondrial oxidant signaling. Felty, Q., Singh, K.P., Roy, D. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Stable X chromosome inactivation involves the PRC1 Polycomb complex and requires histone MACROH2A1 and the CULLIN3/SPOP ubiquitin E3 ligase. Hernández-Muñoz, I., Lund, A.H., van der Stoop, P., Boutsma, E., Muijrers, I., Verhoeven, E., Nusinow, D.A., Panning, B., Marahrens, Y., van Lohuizen, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of PRC1 as the p53 target gene uncovers a novel function of p53 in the regulation of cytokinesis. Li, C., Lin, M., Liu, J. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell cycle-dependent translocation of PRC1 on the spindle by Kif4 is essential for midzone formation and cytokinesis. Zhu, C., Jiang, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Bmi1 cooperates with Dnmt1-associated protein 1 in gene silencing. Negishi, M., Saraya, A., Miyagi, S., Nagao, K., Inagaki, Y., Nishikawa, M., Tajima, S., Koseki, H., Tsuda, H., Takasaki, Y., Nakauchi, H., Iwama, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Ablation of PRC1 by small interfering RNA demonstrates that cytokinetic abscission requires a central spindle bundle in mammalian cells, whereas completion of furrowing does not. Mollinari, C., Kleman, J.P., Saoudi, Y., Jablonski, S.A., Perard, J., Yen, T.J., Margolis, R.L. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
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