The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

INA  -  internexin neuronal intermediate filament...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 66 kDa neurofilament protein, Alpha-Inx, Alpha-internexin, NEF5, NF-66, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of INA


Psychiatry related information on INA


High impact information on INA


Chemical compound and disease context of INA


Biological context of INA

  • The novel antigen 018INX was derived from a small open reading frame in a region of alpha-internexin mRNA that was previously described as 3' untranslated region [11].
  • Both the DNA and the predicted amino acid sequences showed a high degree of homology to the rat NF-66 [12].
  • By labelling the INA fusion proteins with iodinated antibody it was found that molecules with either endocytosis signal were expressed at the plasma membrane and internalized rapidly [13].
  • Membrane-bound INA can be indirectly activated by energy transfer from visible chromophores [14].
  • These different activation domains have been shown previously to differ in their ability to activate an artificial test promoter containing a Brn-3a binding site and the naturally occurring alpha-internexin gene promoter [15].

Anatomical context of INA

  • The discovery of alpha-internexin in the cytoplasmic inclusions implicates novel mechanisms of pathogenesis in NIFID and other neurological diseases with pathological accumulations of IFs [1].
  • Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that approximately 16% of U937 cells carry C1-INA as a surface bound antigen [16].
  • In this report we demonstrate that the human monocyte-like cell line U937 is also capable of synthesizing functional C1-INA [16].
  • Human monocytes are known to synthesize many of the components of complement, including C1-INA [16].
  • Ii is known to form trimers and when INA was transfected into COS cells it assembled as a tetramer like NA [13].

Associations of INA with chemical compounds

  • Synthesis of C1 inhibitor (C1-INA) by a human monocyte-like cell line, U937 [16].
  • The capacity of INA at low concentrations to uncouple the hormone receptor from the adenylate cyclase is not restricted to the LH/hCG receptor [17].
  • Of these molecules only the 20-kDa T3 antigen could be labeled with the hydrophobic reagent 5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide (INA) [18].
  • That the uncoupling of the receptor from the enzyme by INA occurred within the lipid bilayer can be derived from the finding that the prior presence neither of saturating concentrations of hCG nor of the aqueous nitrene-scavenger glutathione (GSH) prevented this effect [17].
  • Photolysis at higher concentrations of INA (0.1-1 mM) led to the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase stimulated by fluoride [17].

Other interactions of INA

  • RNase protection assay indicated that NF-66 was expressed in human fetal brain as early as the 16th gestational week [12].
  • Expression of marker proteins including beta-III-tubulin, alpha-internexin, NF-L and NF-M, tau and L1 indicated the neurons were differentiated, and in some cases polarized [19].
  • Exercise also up-regulated specific synaptic-plasticity-related proteins, the cytoskeletal protein alpha-internexin and molecular chaperones (chaperonin-containing TCP-1, neuronal protein 22, heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 and heat shock protein 8) [20].
  • ASCL1, INA, and SV2B are potential molecular markers for small cell NE tumors and NE cells of the prostate [3].
  • The AHP adopted the method of NSF-INA for inclusion in the AHP monograph owing to observed superiority of this method in terms of precision, glycoside calculation, ease of sample preparation and chromatographic parameters [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of INA

  • We raised 2 highly specific monoclonal antibodies to alpha-internexin which were applied to frozen rat brain sections and Western blots of cytoskeletal extracts [9].
  • Alpha-internexin exhibits transport and turnover rates identical to those of triplet proteins in optic axons and colocalizes with NF-M on single neurofilaments by immunogold electron microscopy [2].
  • Data from the ELISA indicate that U937 cells contain between 2.1 to 12.8 ng of C1-INA per 1 X 10(6) cells [16].
  • In NHANES III, rate INA values (x) can be transformed to WHO-IFCC Reference Material-based values (y) as follows: for apoA-I, y = 0.87x + 251.8 mg/L (r = 0.93, SEslope = 0.13, SEintercept = 17, n = 708); for apoB (mg/L), y = 1.068x + 112.8 mg/L (r = 0.98, SEslope = 0.08, SEintercept = 7, n = 646) [22].
  • We evaluated new, commercially available reagents for assaying apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and B by rate nephelometry (INA) [23].


  1. alpha-internexin is present in the pathological inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. Cairns, N.J., Zhukareva, V., Uryu, K., Zhang, B., Bigio, E., Mackenzie, I.R., Gearing, M., Duyckaerts, C., Yokoo, H., Nakazato, Y., Jaros, E., Perry, R.H., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Alpha-internexin is structurally and functionally associated with the neurofilament triplet proteins in the mature CNS. Yuan, A., Rao, M.V., Sasaki, T., Chen, Y., Kumar, A., Veeranna, n.u.l.l., Liem, R.K., Eyer, J., Peterson, A.C., Julien, J.P., Nixon, R.A. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Clegg, N., Ferguson, C., True, L.D., Arnold, H., Moorman, A., Quinn, J.E., Vessella, R.L., Nelson, P.S. Prostate (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction between C1-INA, coagulation, fibrinolysis and kinin system in hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) and urticaria. Bork, K., Witzke, G., Artmann, K., Benes, P., Böckers, M., Kreuz, W. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. alpha-Internexin aggregates are abundant in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) but rare in other neurodegenerative diseases. Cairns, N.J., Uryu, K., Bigio, E.H., Mackenzie, I.R., Gearing, M., Duyckaerts, C., Yokoo, H., Nakazato, Y., Jaros, E., Perry, R.H., Arnold, S.E., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. Acta Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Specific interaction of HTLV tax protein and a human type IV neuronal intermediate filament protein. Reddy, T.R., Li, X., Jones, Y., Ellisman, M.H., Ching, G.Y., Liem, R.K., Wong-Staal, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Transgenic mice carrying a human mutant superoxide dismutase transgene develop neuronal cytoskeletal pathology resembling human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis lesions. Tu, P.H., Raju, P., Robinson, K.A., Gurney, M.E., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurodegeneration with Features of NIFID and ALS-Extended Clinical and Neuropathological Spectrum. Roeber, S., Bäzner, H., Hennerici, M., Porstmann, R., Kretzschmar, H.A. Brain Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Alpha-internexin, a novel neuronal intermediate filament protein, precedes the low molecular weight neurofilament protein (NF-L) in the developing rat brain. Kaplan, M.P., Chin, S.S., Fliegner, K.H., Liem, R.K. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypoxic response of synaptosomal proteins in term guinea pig fetuses. Buonocore, G., Liberatori, S., Bini, L., Mishra, O.P., Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M., Pallini, V., Bracci, R. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Novel products of the HUD, HUC, NNP-1 and alpha-internexin genes identified by autologous antibody screening of a pediatric neuroblastoma library. Behrends, U., Jandl, T., Golbeck, A., Lechner, B., Müller-Weihrich, S., Schmid, I., Till, H., Berthold, F., Voltz, R., Mautner, J.M. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and developmental expression of human 66 kd neurofilament protein. Chan, S.O., Chiu, F.C. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. An LI and ML motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC-associated invariant chain mediate rapid internalization. Bremnes, B., Madsen, T., Gedde-Dahl, M., Bakke, O. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. 5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide labeling of plasma membrane proteins adjacent to specific sites via energy transfer. Meiklejohn, B.I., Rahman, N.A., Roess, D.A., Barisas, B.G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The different activities of the two activation domains of the Brn-3a transcription factor are dependent on the context of the binding site. Budhram-Mahadeo, V., Morris, P.J., Lakin, N.D., Dawson, S.J., Latchman, D.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor (C1-INA) by a human monocyte-like cell line, U937. Randazzo, B.P., Dattwyler, R.J., Kaplan, A.P., Ghebrehiwet, B. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective photoinduced uncoupling of the response of adenylate cyclase to gonadotropins by 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide. Raviv, Y., Bercovici, T., Gitler, C., Salomon, Y. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The T3 complex on human thymus-derived lymphocytes contains two different subunits of 20 kDa. Borst, J., Prendiville, M.A., Terhorst, C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and characterization of a population of motile neurons in long-term cortical culture. Haas, M.A., Chuckowree, J.A., Chung, R.S., Vickers, J.C., Dickson, T.C. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Exercise affects energy metabolism and neural plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus as revealed by proteomic analysis. Ding, Q., Vaynman, S., Souda, P., Whitelegge, J.P., Gomez-Pinilla, F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Quantitative analysis of flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo biloba: a comparison of two analytical methods. Gray, D.E., Upton, R., Chandra, A., Porter, A., Harris, R.K. Phytochemical analysis : PCA. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Measurement of apolipoproteins A-I and B during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Bachorik, P.S., Lovejoy, K.L., Carroll, M.D., Johnson, C.L., Albers, J.J., Marcovina, S.M. Clin. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. New assay of apolipoproteins A-I and B by rate nephelometry evaluated. Maciejko, J.J., Levinson, S.S., Markyvech, L., Smith, M.P., Blevins, R.D. Clin. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities